Annotated Bibliography- 3g

  1. BioLogos. “What Do ‘Fine-Tuning’ and the ‘Multiverse’ Say about God?”,

Background: This article explains both what the multiverse theory  and fine tuning is and how they contradict each other. It also brings up the idea that the contradiction between the theory and fine tuning gives more leeway for a belief in God and his hand in the formation of the universe.

How I used it: I used this article to explain exactly what both the multiverse theory and fine tuning is. This is to help later when I prove that they contradict each other.

2. “Black Holes.Physics For Idiots,

Background: This article gives an in-depth but still beginner friendly explanation of what black holes are and the math that we use to calculate certain properties.

How I used it: I used this article to explain the math used for a black hole and how it applied.

3. “Black Holes, Explained.” What Is a Black Hole?, 25 Sept. 2018,

Background: This article fully explains what a black hole actually is and how they are formed and even what the difference between and regular black hole and s supermassive black hole is.

How I used it: I used this to explain essentially what a black hole is and how it was formed.

4. Britt, Robert Roy. “Einstein’s Warped View of Space Confirmed.”,, 8 Mar. 2016,

Background: This explains how black holes warps spacetime an how that warping could lead to worm holes and may other possibilities. I also explains how time would change as you enter a black hole or if you are a bystander watching something enter the hole.

How I used it: I used this to explain spacetime and how it warps and also used it as a resource to explain wormholes and why they are a possibility.

5. ExtremeTech, 27 Aug. 2015,

Background: This explains exactly what Hawking theorizes about how black holes store the information that they absorb and how they are discarded through quantum fluctuations.

How I used it: I used this to explain what the article talks about, how the information is stored and how it is released.

6. Ghose, Tia. “What Is Gravity?LiveScience, Purch, 3 June 2013,

Background: This explains what gravity actually is and the math that we use to calculate it. It goes into detail about the field equations used in these calculations.

How I used it: I used this to explain the most basic elements of gravity and how they function on earth and on other planets, I also used the formula for the force of gravity and the gravitational constant.

7. Goff, Philip. “Did the Dying Stephen Hawking Really Mean to Strengthen the Case for God? | Philip Goff.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 7 May 2018,

Background: This again explains in depth what the multiverse theory and fine-tuning is and how they contradict each other.

How I used it: I used this to further explain how these theories contradict each other in order to discredit Stephen Hawking’s theory.

8. Greenfieldboyce, Nell. “Center Of The Milky Way Has Thousands Of Black Holes, Study Shows.” NPR, NPR, 4 Apr. 2018,

Background: This article explains that there are most likely thousands of black holes at the center of our universe that essentially have no effect on us but to keep the milky way together.

How I used it: I used this article to explain that black holes are not always bad and actually can be very beneficial to a galaxy.

9. Hruska, Joel. “Stephen Hawking May Have Finally Solved the Black Hole ‘Information’ Problem.”

Background: This is basically a repeat of the article above that explains black holes and how they handled the information they absorb.

How I used it: I used this the same way but in a different essay.

10. Kaplan, Sarah. “Scientists Believe There’s Other Life in the Universe. Why Haven’t We Found It Yet?The Washington Post, WP Company, 21 July 2015

Background: This explains that Hawking has put on a several million dollar search for life on other planets and has so far been unsuccessful. It also explains that using his multiverse theory, the universe should be rich with alien life, and we should have a least found a clue about it.

How I used it: I used this to further discredit Stephen Hawking.

11. Krall, Jessica, and Jessica Felhofer. “The Future of Black Holes.The Future of Black Holes,

Background: This article explains what is to come of researching black holes and the recent discoveries that have been made.

How I used it: I used this in my definition essay to discuss the future of black holes and the possibilities to come if we think of black holes out of the normal realm.

12. Lamb, Robert. “How Time Travel Works.HowStuffWorks Science, HowStuffWorks, 20 Oct. 2000,

Background: This article further explains how wormholes could be formed through black holes and how Hawking’s Radiation contradicts the wormhole theory,

How I used it: I used this to explain wormholes further and how Hawking’s Radiation limits our field of perspective when thinking about black holes.

13. May, Peter. “Fine Tuning the Multiverse, 8 June 2010,

Background: This article again talks about the multiverse theory and fine tuning but it also uses numbers to prove how they contradict each other.

How I used it: I used this to mathematically discredit Stephen Hawking and the multiverse theory he believes in so strongly.

14. “Stephen Hawking.Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 24 Oct. 2018,

Background: This gives the multiple awards and fantastic achievements that Stephen Hawking has accomplished over his life.

How I used it: I used this to show my respect for Stephen Hawking and to show why he is so highly regarded.

15. Strassler, Matt. “Quantum Fluctuations and Their Energy.Of Particular Significance, 30 Aug. 2013,

Background: This article explains exactly what quantum fluctuations are and hpw much energy they put out.

How I used it: I used this to explain quantum fluctuations in depth and used the examples to explain the quantum fields and how they function.

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