Research- veleze22

 

Concussions Matter

According to studies of the University of Utah, “A concussion is a mild form of traumatic brain injury that affects how your brain functions. These effects can be short-term, lasting only a few hours or a couple of days, or cause long-term problems.” When players trade blows to the head it causes impact between the brain and the skull. A hit can be so hard that it affects the way a player’s brain functions and can also cause long-term damage. Studies show that about 300,000 TBIs occur in sports each year.

In the sport of football, traumatic brain injuries such as concussions have drastically affected hundreds of professional athletes until this day and still have an impact on the game. The NFL will always have cases of concussions no matter what equipment is worn. Concussions have been a serious present issue with players today. The NFL has tried to resolve the number on concussions occurring during seasons by improving equipment, adding concussion protocols, and making rule changes to ensure the safety of playing at all levels of football. Although these changes have improved and decreased the number of concussions occurring, coaches and organizations must focus on High School and College level players because of all the young, developing brains of the athletes. They must understand that concussions are very severe and can cause long-term damage to the brain. It is important to educate them on the issue while they’re still taking in everything that comes with playing the game of football. Concussions are a serious injury, and should no longer be taken lightly.

Helmet manufacturers have been trying to reduce the impact of hits to the head with new helmet technology. Over the years several new models of helmets have been improved more and more by the year. The National Operating Committee on Standards tests helmets for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE), which provides voluntary standards that are designed to assess a helmet’s ability to prevent skull fracture. These helmets provide bigger and more comfortable padding which only makes the players feel like it’s safer than the standard helmet. What it does is make players want to hit harder while completely disregarding a full impact head to head hit. The University of Utah detailed that, “concussions injure your brain to some extent and they all require time to heal. Brain injury from even the mildest concussions can have short-term and long-term effects. The effects of a concussion can be subtle and change over time. Symptoms can last days, weeks or longer.” Since 2003, researchers have been instrumenting football players with the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) system to collect head acceleration data each time a player experiences a head impact. The measurement and analysis of head acceleration data collected from these in-helmet accelerometer arrays have been well validated and accepted. The concept of the study was to develop and introduce the concept of a new evaluation system that can be used to provide quantitative insight into the protective performance of football helmets against concussions.

                                                        Technology

With this in mind, technology is at a stage where it can resolve all problems. It has risen to be one of the most dependable sources in our present time. Technology has the power to even stop concussions occurring in our most dangerous sports, like football. Every year, thousands of football players suffer from mild concussions. Concussions occur when the brain moves and collides with the skull. A new mechanism called the “STAR Evaluation system” was brainstormed and “can be used to evaluate helmet performance by integrating player head impact exposure and risk of concussion.” “Development of the STAR Evaluation System for Football Helmets: Integrating Player Head Impact Exposure and Risk of Concussion.” Written by Steven Rowson, explains that “the Summation of Tests for the Analysis of Risk (STAR) equation relates on-field impact exposure to a series of 24 drop tests performed at four impact locations and six impact energy levels.” The evaluation system contained 62,974 data points based off of head impact. The STAR formula combined the 24 drop tests with the predicted risk of injury and exposure for each player throughout the whole entire season. The new STAR evaluation equation provides sports science with a special tool that can calculate the performance of helmets being developed. This can really separate the strong from the weak because it’ll always produce accurate data for each helmet. With that being said coaches must be very attentive to all players and the number of impact blows taken to the head. With this new technology in effect it will be a requirement for coaches to monitor players’ helmet performance.  This helmet system may be the next big thing when it comes to preventing head injury and long-term effects caused by concussions involving football.

Overall, impacts to the front of the helmet occurred most frequently, and were followed by impacts to the rear, top, and side of the helmet. Using these percentages, the number of impacts to each impact location for a single player participating in a complete season were computed based on the assumption that a total of 1,000 head impacts were experienced. This transformation gives that for a single season, a player will experience 347 impacts to the front of the helmet, 319 impacts to the rear of the helmet, 171 impacts to the top of the helmet, and 163 impacts to the sides of the helmet. Being that I played football my whole life I can standby these results. Throughout a full season a player goes through a significant amount of hits to the head whether it’s during practice or in a game, the numbers add up well.

                                                        NFL Effects

This past season the NFL had launched an Injury Reduction Plan with the aim to reduce the incidence of concussions in the upcoming 2018 season. Following a 16 percent increase in concussions during the 2017 season, NFL Chief Medical Officer Dr. Allen Sills issued a call-to-action to reduce concussions. “We see our job in player health and safety to have the very best care for our patients as possible—in terms of prevention, in terms of treating and diagnosing injuries, and doing rehabilitation for those injuries—so we can keep our players as safe as possible,” said Dr. Sills. NFL leaders, clubs and the wide variety of experts in medicine, engineering and science who form the NFL medical committees developed a three-pronged approach to drive behavioral changes. The NFL also created an educational video for players, coaches and club personnel about the concussion reduction strategy. “We designed what we think are going to be steps that can immediately impact the number of concussions on our fields,” he said. The NFL made 3 categories that will experience change and improvement they are preseason practices, better performing helmets, and rule changes.

“The first part of our concussion reduction [strategy],” said Dr. Sills, “is around preseason practices—so we want to work with our clubs to look at how they’re practicing, what types of drills are being done to see if we can drive that number [of concussions] down.” The NFL is sharing information across the league to educate, stimulate change and enhance player safety—including information about the causes of concussion, the helmets players wear, and injury data analysis, such as preseason practice concussion data. The second part of the Injury Reduction Plan is a goal to get players out of lower-performing helmets and into better-performing helmets in an effort to decrease the risk of injury. Each year, helmets undergo laboratory testing by biomechanical engineers appointed by the NFL and the NFL Players Association to evaluate which helmets best reduce head impact severity. The results of the laboratory tests are displayed on a poster and shared with NFL players, club equipment managers, as well as club medical, training and coaching staffs to help inform equipment choices. In 2018, based on the results of this study and the opinions of the biomechanical experts involved, the NFL and NFLPA will prohibit 10 helmet models from being worn by NFL players. It is important to note that no helmet can completely protect against serious brain or neck injuries a player might sustain while playing football, and that the results of this testing should not be extrapolated to collegiate, high school, or youth football. The third component of the Injury Reduction Plan is the enforcement of rules changes aimed at eliminating potentially risky behavior that could lead to injuries. Through the latest changes including the “Use of the Helmet” rule and kickoff modifications, the NFL is leveraging data in an effort to improve player safety and evolve the game.

While the NFL did keep in mind the number of injuries that were being recorded, according to the NCAA Concussion study, “Approximately 300,000 sport-related concussions occur in the United States annually, and the likelihood of serious sequelae may increase with repeated head injury.” A prospective cohort study of incident and recurrent concussions in a defined group of collegiate athletes was taken place for 3 football seasons, a total of 2,905 players were studied. “The 2905 college football players were followed up for a total of 4251 player-seasons. Our study resulted in 196 reported concussions among 184 players (12 concussions were prospective repeat concussions). Of the 196 incident concussions, 94 were included in the assessment group. The overall rate of incident concussion was 0.81 per 1000 athlete exposures (95% CI, 0.70-0.93). More than half of the total concussions (n = 101 [51.5%]) occurred in practices, but the rate of concussive injuries in games was markedly higher than the rate in practices (rate ratio, 8.15; 95% CI, 6.16-10.78). The rate in Division III was also higher than the rates in Divisions I and II.”

Effects of Concussions

Concussions can have short-term effects like headaches and confusion. According to the University of Utah, “Some people experience loss of memory and are unable to remember the event in which the concussion occurred.” Some symptoms of having a concussion may be headaches, memory loss, cloudy memory, delayed responses when talking, dizziness, ringing in the ears, nausea, blurry vision, and sensitivity to light and sound. With this in mind, concussions without a doubt have an effect on the human brain that is unlike any other injury. Those involved in sports that have a high contact-to-contact aspect to them, are more likely to suffer indefinitely from injuries such as a concussion. Players, who have experienced a concussion for them, may also be deterred from going back on the field to potentially relive the horror moment that put them out of the game in the first place.

Concussions can also have long-term effects on an individual. Sometimes symptoms of a concussion may begin to occur after the incident. Although most people that suffer from a concussion only see short-term effects there are cases where people have to suffer long-term. The University of Utah stated that long-term effects of a concussion can include, “trouble concentrating, memory problems, irritability, personality changes, sensitivity to light and noise, sleep disturbances, depression and other psychological problems.” Some people suffer from post-concussion syndrome, which is when you are still experiencing symptoms more then a month after the injury has occurred. What some may fail to realize is that, the more concussions a person has than the more long-term effects an individual may suffer from. This can also occur if one rushes into returning to the same activity that landed them with the concussion itself in the first place without letting their brain fully heal. It is important to let your brain heal to the fullest, because one wrong move can potentially set that person back even further than before.

In conclusion, concussions are more serious than most people would think. The effects of these traumatic injuries can be life changing, and ruin ones career and lifelong dreams. No matter what equipment is made to decrease a concussion from happening, it will never be sufficient for one to be completely risk-free. It is important to take into consideration that the NFL has even worked diligently on trying to prevent their players from having to suffer from such injury, which is why concussions should be taken even more seriously. Concussions have long-lasting effects, can destroy our youth’s both physically and emotionally, and can damage the future for our children when it comes to playing sports and living their life to the fullest.

References

Collins, M. W. (1999, September 08.) Relationship Between Concussion and

Neuropsychological Performance in College Football Players. Retrieved from https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/191533

Comparison of Mouth Guard Designs and Concussion Prevention … : Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. (2005, April/May). Retrieved from https://journals.lww.com/cjsportsmed/Abstract/2005/09000/Comparison_of_Mouth_Guard_Designs_and_Concussion.3.aspx

Concussions: How They Can Affect You Now and Later  . (n.d.). Retrieved from

https://healthcare.utah.edu/healthfeed/postings/2016/11/concussion.php

Guskiewicz, K. M., & ATC. (2003, November 19). Cumulative Effects Associated With

Recurrent Concussion in Collegiate Football Players. Retrieved from https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/197667

Guskiewicz, M., K., Marshall, W., S., Bailes, Julian, . . . D., B. (2005, October 01). Association between Recurrent Concussion and Late-Life Cognitive Impairment in Retired Professional Football Players. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/neurosurgery/article-abstract/57/4/719/3775312?redirectedFrom=fulltext

Incidence of Sports-Related Concussion among Youth Football Players Aged 8-12 Years. (2013, June 14). Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022347613004289

Olson, Grossberg, & T., G. (2016, March 01). ‘We Need to Protect the Brain’: Addressing the Growing Problem of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy. Retrieved from https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-447930732/we-need-to-protect-the-brain-addressing-the-growing

Rowson, S., & Duma, S. M. (2011, May 07). Development of the STAR Evaluation System for Football Helmets: Integrating Player Head Impact Exposure and Risk of Concussion. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10439-011-0322-5

Schwarz, A. (2009, December 03). N.F.L. Issues New Guidelines on Concussions. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/03/sports/football/03concussion.html

Traumatic Brain Injury – Football, Warfare, and Long-Term Effects | NEJM. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmp1007051

 

Research- muggastackz

An American Crime

American singer/songwriter and political activist Ted Nugent said, “Where you have the most armed citizens in America, you have the lowest violent crime rate. Where you have the worst gun control, you have the highest crime rate.” There is crime happening all over America, whether it may be a small or a larger crime. But what is the true meaning of crime? Crime is the illegal act that someone commits and is punished by the government. There is also a difference between a crime and a crime rate. A crime rate is based on the number of crimes per 100,000 population. Many people in society find that crime in urban areas is more frequent than it is in the suburbs or in rural areas; which could be true. There are different categories and classifications for each crime and the criminals doing the crime. As years go on, crime could be hard to fight in urban areas because it is uncontrollable. Criminal activity is a chain effect; once it happens, it continues to happen prevalently

Over the past decade, crime rates and crime have been a huge problem in the United States. Violent crime has been around for as long as people can remember. Violent crimes would be considered murder, manslaughter, rape, aggravated assault, etc. There was a great increase in violent crimes between 1985 and 1990, right around the time Reagan was elected president. During this time, crime rates and crime played ‘hand and hand to show that there was an incline in crime and incarceration. The U.S. breaks the charts in murder rates and other crimes than other affluent countries. Christopher Jencks, a writer for The American Post, writes murder rates are far higher in the United States than in Europe, Japan, or even Canada.” Jencks states that the United States also has more rapes, robberies, and assaults than other rich countries. All of these crimes are considered violent crimes. Looking at other countries compared to the United States, it gives people in society reasons why our crime is increasing and why this continues to skyrocket throughout the years. What makes other serious crimes like homicide or murder nonreportable?

Along with violent crimes, property crimes are also committed very frequently in the U.S. Joe Gorman, author for The Vindicator, shares statistics from a local town whose property crimes were reported.” The local numbers for property crimes – which the FBI classifies as burglaries, motor vehicle thefts, vandalism, and shoplifting – decreased slightly for local police departments. Nationally, the FBI said property crimes decreased 3 percent in 2017 from 2016.”

According to US Legal, Burglaries/total population is the standard “crime rate” reported by the FBI and used by social scientists. These may be small crimes, but they are reported more often because these are personal items owned by homeowners or business owners. Property crimes happen to individuals during the night hours. Sam Thompson, Global News writer, interviewed police officers regarding a property crime incident. “The main thing is, we’ve had an increase in some minor property crimes, vandalism at night, theft from vehicles, theft from sheds, bicycle theft from yards, stuff like that,” he said. Smaller cities are known to have more property crimes than violent crimes. Thompson quotes a staff sergeant of Brandon Township saying, “Brandon’s a smaller city, around 50,000 people, so we have a little bit of that small-town attitude in some areas.” Officers in small suburban or rural areas aren’t patrolling streets that much because they feel that nothing would be expected to happen in their town. All crime should be reported regardless of how much damage is done; this only helps the community better.

Crime rates and crime differ in some regions of the country. Every city and town do not commit the same crime or have similar crime rates. Different regions of the country will have a higher crime rate or even high crime in that area than an another. Most urban cities have more crime and crime rates. Popular urban cities are bound to be talked about for crime rate, low employment, and impoverished areas. Violent crimes and property crimes are both happening a lot in those communities who need help the most. According to Statista, St.Louis had the highest violent crime in 2017. 2,082 crimes per 100,000 residents were recorded, and Detroit is running a close race with 2,057 crimes per 100,000. The statistics given are four violent crime categories: murder and non-negligent manslaughter; forcible rape; robbery; and aggravated assault. The major urban cities that are known for their ‘crime,’ there isn’t much business coming in and out because no one wants to be around a crime infested area. No business results in low employment rates and when people in that area have no job; they find their self-doing criminal activity. A chain effect continues.

There are at least a couple states in each of the five regions which have high crime and crime rates in the U.S.In 2017, Lousiana had the highest murders in the country with a manslaughter rate of 12.4 which is twice the national average. Smaller states like Vermont or New Hampshire have murder rates of 1. A tremendous amount of cities in the U.S have reported an increase in crime in their cities. New York Times writers Monica Davey and Mitch Smith state that “ In New Orleans, 120 people had been killed by late August, compared with 98 during the same period a year earlier. In Baltimore, homicides had hit 215, up from 138 at the same point in 2014. In Washington, the toll was 105, compared with 73 people a year ago. And in St. Louis, 136 people had been killed this year, a 60 percent rise from the 85 murders the city had by the same time last year.” Crime has changed over the years. Some of the crimes happening today are senseless crimes or crimes that have occurred on accident.

In the world today, society links everything together to receive satisfaction regardless if it is negative or positive. There will always be a crime in the world, but there are ways to help to reduce the amount of crime happening and to reduce the crime rate. Communities are in fearful trouble because crime gradually gets worse each day and they just want things to go back to normal.

Crime and crime rate comes with many questions and analysis that leave members of society puzzled. If there is a failure to reporting the crime, will crime get worst? Is social media and technology helping create more crime? Can police help reduce the amount of crime?

Failure to report crimes will lead to more crime. Society is fearful for what is going to happen next if they tell the police or people in the neighborhood. People in each community knows what is going on in the area, but they are nervous that they will be the next victim. People in urban areas will be called names like a ‘snitch’ if they told the police what they saw or heard. People in the community who are aware of the crime is only making their community better. When a crime isn’t reported, this will continue to grow in areas and will continue to get worst yearly. Most crime goes unreported in some urban areas. People in the community feel that not reporting the crime rate will help the situation when in reality, everything is getting worse. More crimes will continue to happen if they aren’t reported to the police because the community will be afraid that they will be the next victims of the future crime committed. Reported crimes are what makes statistics go down each year.

Steven Donziger writes, “The National Crime Victimization Survey, begun in 1973, is administered by the US Census Bureau. Approximately 40,000 households to determine how many people were victimized by one of seven crimes in the past year. The crimes recorded are rape, robbery, assault, personal theft, household theft, burglary, and motor vehicle theft.” Victims of crime will continue to feel that they are victims. According to John Gramlich, a researcher for Pew Research Center finds “In 2016, only 42% of the violent crime tracked by BJS was reported; And in the much more common category of property crime, only about a third (36%) were reported.” Society feels that nothing will happen if they report a crime. The more crime is reported, people in communities can feel safe knowing that a person has been found.

Everyone in the world uses social media, whether it is used to keep in touch with family, being updated with daily news or worldly events, or to show photos dealing with personal life. Children of today use social media and technology more than adults do. The media creates more crime daily; police brutality, discrimination, self-defense, etc. Brittni Brown, writer for International Policy Digest, states “In listening to and reading all of these reports about police and crime in the media, it is not hard to conclude that crime is on the rise everywhere and that the United States is no longer a safe place and allowing children to play in the front yard is risky.” Everything that deals with a crime is being plastered in the media to make a situation bigger. Media can be useful to keep people update, and it can also be harmful because jumping to conclusions can create a war that effects everyone.

Technology is Connected to an increase in crime. Both this paragraph and the previous are connected to one another. If a child in an urban community is inside on their phones or playing games systems, they are less likely to be influenced by their neighborhoods friends. If a child in an urban community is inside on their phones or playing games systems, they are less likely to be affected by their neighborhoods friends, but these video games are very violent. These video games are introducing guns, drugs, robbery, gang affiliation at a young age. Michael Casey, a journalist for CBS News, writes “Over 90 percent of children play video games, with 85 percent of those games containing some violence.” Violent games result in violent behavior. We see mass shooting happening frequently; these shootings are always in the media which allows individuals to do the exact same thing. Casey finds that “Adam Lanza gunned down 20 children and six teachers Sandy Hook Elementary School in Connecticut. It later turned out that he was obsessed with violent video games.” Young people pick this trait up from the games they are playing. Videos games that are violent are giving youth a lousy outlook for their lives and others around them.

Crime prevention is something police officers do as a part of their job along with enforcing the law. Reporting crime will reduce the attractiveness of crime. The government and the police work together to try to reduce crime and how crime rates could drop. The criminal justice system is finding theories that could help urban communities reduce the amount of crime happening in those areas. Police and the government see that crime will increase each and every day so what can they do to fix everything. If police are brought on the street to help communities, less crime will happen. Lind and Lopez, writers for Vox.com, write, “while the number of police can affect crime rates, crime rates also affect the number of police. When crime rises, cities hire more police in response.” Lind and Lopez also state that “Research on specific areas, as well as the US as a whole, found that hiring more police helped decrease crime.” Crime, in general, was worst decades ago then what it is now and those models didn’t affect anyway in society. Crime, drugs, and gangs were more so a problem in the ’80s, and 90’s then in the 00’s and present day.

Cleary, crime in the United States will always continue to be around. It’s never-ending, or people can’t even wrap their head around the amount of crime happening. Many feel that crime is decreasing throughout the years. It’s not so much fair to think that there can be an increase and a decrease in crime. There are many outcomes to how crime is decreasing in the world. Incarceration is a reason why there is a decrease in crime. The community plays a role as well when talking about crime. Nevertheless, corruption will continue to be in the world.

John Gramlich, a researcher, found that “In 2016, there were more than 600 violent crimes per 100,000 residents in Alaska, Nevada, New Mexico, and Tennessee. By contrast, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont had rates below 200 violent crimes per 100,000 residents.” Crimes are dropping because criminals that committed violent crimes are incarcerated. Because they are locked up, the perpetrators aren’t going to commit the murder or severe crime. When previous crime commiters are locked up, the crime rates will go down. In the online article from Vox.com, “The Brennan Center report estimates that incarceration played even less of a role than that: up to 12 percent of the drop in property crime during the 1990s was due to the rise in incarceration, but it was probably more like 6 percent. And it contributed to 1 percent, at most, of the continued property crime decline in the 2000s.” People who are incarcerated begins to age out of the crime they commit. While being locked up they find that they don’t want to do what brought them to jail, Christoper Jencks writes, “Murders are more likely to be reported to the police because they are easier to detect what happened. Not only is murder better recorded than other crimes, but there is less reason to think that the police have changed the way in which they record murders.” Incarcerating people who have done violent crimes allows a decline in crime.

More people in society think that a violent city will have more violent and property crimes. Researchers found that “higher poverty levels are associated with higher crime levels.” When thinking about poverty, instantly it is found upon that more killings and robberies are taking place at each second. It was found that this was only true for property crimes and not violent crimes. Now logically thinking,  it would make sense that violent crime is happening because certain gangs have feuds between them, or even accidentally killings are always happening in neighborhoods in poverty. In an article written by Tom Jacobs, it states, “ Social disorganization theory argues that certain neighborhood characteristics—a low-income, transient population composed of people from different ethnic groups—”would lead to higher levels of crime, as this would weaken the structural bonds within a community.” Neighborhoods are big reasons on why certain crimes frequently happen than they should in areas. Many feel that crime will be reduced if criminals are starting to get convicted for their crimes and if the neighborhoods are starting to become more positive and have a better outlook on the community as a whole. If more neighborhoods have programs or events that can bring a community together than diminish them and allow them to create more violence. A real neighborhood could reduce crime and property crime will start to decrease instead of increasing steadily.

Along with the fact that urban communities are diminishing people, the police force is also adding to crime rates in America. Cops are killing African-Americans due to police brutality in the world. These are reported crimes because either victims or witnesses see this cruel activity and take it to social media or at least tell someone about what they saw. Now that police brutality is becoming popular in the past couple of years; police try to stay away from black neighborhoods to try to reduce conflict. Blacks tend to stay away from the police now because they see what happens to other people who are just like them. Since cops stay away from black neighborhoods, they have no control over people in that community.

They are staying away which means people in urban communities think that they can get away with anything because no one is reprimanding them. When people see police brutality happening in social media, this encourages them to do criminal activity. Michael Barone, a writer for National Review, states “Black Americans were the primary victims of the huge crime increase starting in the late 1960s, and they will be the primary victims again if the Ferguson effect continues to result in more homicides.”Police officers break down people in the community which allows them to feel less than what they are. Resulting in the fact that police brutality is affected mental health, this also attracts people to do criminal behavior because they aren’t in the right state of mind. Police brutality is creating crime to increase. People in society demand more police to come in and help, but what is that going to do? Many theories have been tried to help bring police and people together. They have even decided to bring back specific models to maybe help reduce crime as a whole. This effect only created more people to go against this, and it failed. We think that police are supposed to help when in today’s world they are defeating the purpose. If police brutality weren’t as bad as it is, there wouldn’t be skyrocketing crimes happening.

There is no way to get around the fact that crime is going to go away completely. Whether it may be a small or severe crime, it still classifies as a crime in the United States. People do senseless crimes that result with them getting arrested and added to the statistics. The only way to bring down the crime rate is to report crimes, cooperate with police, and penalize criminals. The crime rate might rise temporarily as more crimes are reported, but they’ll fall again when the threat of swift justice deters criminals.

References
Brown, Brittni. “Is the Media Altering Our Perceptions of Crime?” International Policy Digest, International Policy Digest, 6 Nov. 2018, intpolicydigest.org/2015/03/11/is-the-media-altering-our-perceptions-of-crime/.

Casey, Michael. “Do Violent Video Games Lead to Criminal Behavior?” CBS News, CBS Interactive, 17 Aug. 2015, www.cbsnews.com/news/do-violent-video-games-lead-to-criminal-behavior/.

Davey, Monica, and Mitch Smith. “Murder Rates Rising Sharply in Many U.S. Cities.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 1 Sept. 2015, www.nytimes.com/2015/09/01/us/murder-rates-rising-sharply-in-many-us-cities.html

Donziger, Steven. “Measures of Crime” Www.andrew.cmu.eduwww.andrew.cmu.edu/course/79-331/measures.html.

Gramlich, John. “5 Facts about Crime in the U.S.” Pew Research Center, Pew Research Center, 30 Jan. 2018, www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/01/30/5-facts-about-crime-in-the-u-s/.

Gorman, Joe. “Local Crime Rates Close to National Trends.” Vindy.com, 28 Sept. 2018, www.vindy.com/news/2018/sep/28/fbi-statistics-crime-report-local-nation/.

Jacobs, Tom. “How to Bring Down Crime Rates.” Pacific Standard, Pacific Standard, 29 Sept. 2015, psmag.com/news/how-to-bring-down-crime-rates.

Jencks, Christopher. “Is Violent Crime Increasing?” The American Prospect, prospect.org/article/violent-crime-increasing.

Lind, Dara, and German Lopez. “16 Theories for Why Crime Plummeted in the US.” Vox.com, Vox Media, 20 May 2015, www.vox.com/2015/2/13/8032231/crime-drop.

“Number of Murders: U.S. Homicide Rate.” Statista, www.statista.com/statistics/195331/number-of-murders-in-the-us-by-state/.

Thompson, Sam. “Brandon Police Encourage Residents to ‘Lock It up’ as Property Crime Climbs.” Global News, Global News, 19 Nov. 2018, globalnews.ca/news/4676675/brandon-police-encourage-residents-to-lock-it-up-as-property-crime-climbs/.

US Legal, Inc. “Crime Rate Law and Legal Definition.” Fraud Law and Legal Definition | USLegal, Inc., definitions.uslegal.com/c/crime-rate/.

 

Research — Wiseman101

Is Death also a Choice?

Physician-assisted suicide (PAS) as part of euthanasia is one of the oldest points of contention in medical ethics. The original Hippocratic Oath forbids it, and many religions and societal traditions have rejected it since antiquity. In physician-assisted suicide, a suffering or terminally ill patient is aided by a certified health practitioner to get access to a lethal dose that the patient then administers on themselves. If the patient is incapable of doing so, they can request the physician to administer the lethal substance to end the patient’s life. [Physician-assisted dying (PAS) as part of euthanasia is one of the oldest points of contention in medical ethics. The original Hippocratic Oath forbids it, and many religions and societal traditions have rejected it since antiquity. In physician-assisted dying, a suffering or terminally ill patient is aided by a certified health practitioner to get access to a lethal dose that the patient then administers on themselves. If the patient is incapable of doing so, they can request the physician to administer the lethal substance to end the patient’s life.]

It is called physician-assisted because the doctor supports in dying and hastening the death of the patient. In this case, the doctor takes the step knowingly and ready to make the patient die. There is a difference between physician-assisted suicide and the euthanasia. In euthanasia a doctor, assist the patient to die through the administration of a lethal drug while in physician-assisted dying, the doctor deals with a sound mind individual who requests voluntarily to die by requiring a dose of barbiturates that will kill him or her. The state of the art palliative care should be established to treat these people suffering and almost ending their lives. The practice of physician-assisted suicide continues to raise debate as only five American states, a handful of European Countries and Colombia permit some form of doctor-assisted suicide. Even though many governments and organizations do not formally accept physician-assisted suicide as a standard medical practice due to ethical concerns, they should adopt it because it is a show of respect to individual civil liberties as provided by the right of every individual to choose what is best for them without government or societal interference. [The practice of physician-assisted dying continues to raise debate as only five American states, a handful of European Countries and Colombia permit some form of doctor-assisted suicide. Even though many governments and organizations do not formally accept physician-assisted suicide as a standard medical practice due to ethical concerns, they should adopt it because it is a show of respect to individual civil liberties as provided by the right of every individual to choose what is best for them without government or societal interference] Nobody should control how someone should die; therefore, patients should be given a right to die anytime they will.

[The text in purple is reproduced from a Pay-for-Paper site called Course Hero where papers are purchased for college courses. https://www.coursehero.com/file/35361015/Physician-Assisted-Suicide-A-Protection-of-Individual-Civil-Libertiesdocx/ ]

Many states have illegalized physician-assisted suicide. However, there has been a recent flurry of legal implications in this case. Kopelman also claims that, the issue of whether of whether to legalize physician-assisted deaths (PAD) has been on debate for a long time now. In the United States, most of the states have prohibited PAD and terming it as unconstitutional, but it the real sense it constitutional. Individuals should be given their liberty under the constitution.  She says that there have been several attempts to change this law. One of the federal challenging the constitutionality of these prohibitions of PAD includes two Supreme Court cases, Washington vs. Glucksberg and Quill vs. Vacco. After several attempts to legalize PAD failed, then the Death with Dignity Act was passed in Oregon in 1995 and also in Washington state in 2008. These laws allow an individual who wishes to die through physician-assisted practice to do so freely.

There has been a controversy on how to recognize the right of PAD individuals. According to Kopelman, some people associate the word suicide with some mental illness and some irrational behavior. However, these people should be given a right to control their lives because there is a point a patient realizes that death is the only best option for the illness, this is a self-preservation means. That is why when the states legalized this means of dying called is physician-assisted suicide.

There are various reasons why the right to physician-assisted suicide should be recognized. The first reason is patient autonomy. A patient should be guaranteed a right to control any possible circumstances surrounding his death. Respect of the patient is one duty of a doctor. The sole responsibility is to relieve pain the patient is undergoing, physician-assisted suicide is one of the approaches used. This practice was practiced in Oregon whereby over 100 patients obtained a prescription for lethal doses under the law, which was passed in 1997. 850 patients die after taking such doses. Most of these patients had critical and acute diseases like cancer whereby death was the only remaining option. It should also be noted that physician-assisted death is a personal choice; therefore, people should be given their right to choose what suits them. Sometimes the pain in the patient can be too much to contain, therefore when the patient recognizes it is better to die, nobody is supposed to prohibit that, secondly, there is an aspect of mercy. If the pain and suffering the patient is undergoing cannot be relived through the palliative care, then the doctor has the powers to do anything possible to assist the patient to relieve the pan, even if it means hastening patient’s death. Because, honestly, sometimes pain can be unbearable.

Kopelman also points out that, not all medicine can relieve human suffering. The pain and suffering of a dying patient can be too much. The suffering is caused by somatic symptoms like nausea, pain, depression, anxiety and even hopelessness. For most of the patients, when they feel to have the control over their death timing, they get comfort. However, it is reasonable to ask for medicine before opting for death directly. As much as there should be a right for physician-assisted individuals, nobody wants patients to die but have freedom and a right to remain alive and in good health. However, it should be noted that PAD is controlling suffering on terminally ill patients.

There is an unexpected benefit of allowing patients to have a right to physician-assisted suicide. However, it should be noted that the laws and rights for physician-assisted right do intend to kill a patient but to assist in pain relieving. In the study by Boudreau, Donald J., and Margaret A. Somerville, “Physician-assisted Suicide Should Not Be” in this exercise, patients have the opportunity to die with dignity; they experience less trauma and pin when dying. In addition, the patient has all the time to say goodbye to the friends and family members. It should be noted that when the patient requests to die early, he saves the financial burden that the family would have used to treat a disease, which will not get ill at the end of the day. The other most crucial benefit of such a death is that some useful organs like the kidneys can be saved for that patients and be used to save the lives of other patients. In addition, one can imagine if there were not physician-assisted suicide, many people could have committed suicide in a mess and horrifying, traumatic manner.

The other most important reason for legalizing physician-assisted suicide is that it gives patients freedom of choice. The capability to control your mind and body is fundamental to any human being. Boudreau and Somerville agree that, a patient should not be allowed to continue suffering for long in this world when in the real sense there are no hopes for healing members. Death is never enjoyable to witness, but also it is more saddening to see your loved one struggle in pain which will not end any time soon members. Therefore, physician-assisted death helps the terminally ill patient to end his life without necessarily undergoing agony for a long time. Physician-assisted suicide is the best method to determine the right time and manner of a terminally ill patient. This liberty grants the patients alternatives to choose. The constitution provides this liberty and makes it clear for everyone. However, some proponents can argue that physician-assisted suicide should be illegalized since the doctors have no right to determine the right time for a patient’s death.

Although physician-assisted suicide can be regarded as a sound practice, there are valid arguments against its application. According to Margaret Sommerville in her book “Death Talk, Second Edition: The Case Against Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide,” she claims that the constitution recognizes the right to life, and when life and death are compared, life will take precedence. Allowing physician-assisted dying is a contradiction of the first liberty. [Although physician-assisted suicide can be regarded as a sound practice, there are valid arguments against its application. First, the constitution recognizes the right to life, and when life and death are compared, life will take precedence (Sommerville, 2014). Allowing physician-assisted dying is a contradiction of the first liberty.]

In a literature review by Nicole Steck and Matthias Egger “Euthanasia and assisted suicide in selected European countries and US states: systematic literature review,” they conclude that it is also possible that legislating doctor-assisted suicide will be the first step on a slippery slope that will involve threats to the vulnerable as premature death is enacted as a cheap alternative for palliative care. This is true when one considers that a dose of euthanasia costs an upward of $50 and kidney failure treatment may cost an upward of $89,000 per year in the US. Also, Sommerville points out that, unproductive and poor citizens will be targeted and this, again, goes against the right of every American to access quality healthcare. [It is also possible that legislating doctor-assisted suicide will be the first step on a slippery slope that will involve threats to the vulnerable as premature death is enacted as a cheap alternative for palliative care. This is true when one considers that a dose of euthanasia costs an upward of $50 and kidney failure treatment may cost an upward of $89,000 per year in the US (Steck, Egger, Maessen, Reisch, & Zwahlen, 2013). Unproductive and poor citizens will be targeted and this, again, goes against the right of every American to access quality healthcare.]

For some people, the contention is absolute and moral. Life is sacred and the suffering that comes with it till one dies confers its dignity and consequently, deliberately ending a human life is wrong. Finally, how long will it take before physician-assisted suicide becomes involuntary? When relatives approach a 92-year old man on life support and request them to sign the physician-assisted suicide forms, is that not indirectly violating their rights as they have no choice? [For some people, the contention is absolute and moral. Life is sacred and the suffering that comes . . . . My free preview of the Course Hero document ended here. I did not purchase the paper to continue the comparison.]

According to Bradley Denton and his partner Dr. William Bradley in their “Australian Nursing and Midwifery” journal , the views that physician-assisted dying is immoral and strips human dignity deserves some seriousness but, is not autonomy and liberty critical sources of human dignity as well? The right to choose certainly adds value to human life and people should not take a myopic view of ethics without analyzing the laws that make these ethics possible. In the society we live in where the state and religion are separated, it is queer to support the sanctity of life abstractly by exposing particular individuals to unbearable pain, suffering and indignity that comes from some terminal conditions .Furthermore, evidence from countries and states where physician-assisted suicide has been enacted shows that the slippery slope contention with regard to widespread physician-assisted suicide is a myth. In the Netherlands for example, Gopal in his “Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law,” says that the process of doctor-assisted dying is bureaucratic and highly complex meaning that most applicants are rejected until it is established beyond reasonable doubt that the request is voluntary and will do more good than good. The Netherlands treats physician-assisted suicide as a criminal act if not carried out in the presence of an ethics expert, a legal expert, and the doctor. This implies that strict controls are needed, not blatant rejection, to ensure that this right is protected and not abused.

In the article” Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies” by MSC. Suela Hoxhaj, the argument that life should take precedence over death does not hold water when analyzed from an individual’s rights perspective. Just as people have the right to live with dignity, they also have a right to die with dignity. Medical practice is supposed to alleviate pain and unnecessary suffering in patients. Take the example of a single mother of teenage children having stage four cancer. Undergoing chemotherapy means that her hair falls off even as she consistently vomits while enduring the extreme pain that her children are supposed to watch as they take care of her. Presently, the medical technology we have cannot do any better than chemotherapy and radiotherapy to treat cancer (which generally cannot restore health in stage four cancer) and in the case of this mother, the continuing suffering only robs her of her dignity and those of her children. With physician-assisted suicide, such patients and their families get a right to a dignified end.

According to Sommerville, anti-physician assisted suicide proponents argue that death is a natural process that should not be interfered with. However, doctors have and continue to implicitly exercise the right of dying on the patient’ behalf. Physician-assisted suicide fixes this by recognizing the individual civil liberty of the patient to choose and administer PAS. Doctors normally exercise this right by giving pain-relief in lethal doses or withdrawing treatment. As Steck, Egger, Maessen, Reisch, & Zwahlen notes, this is usually after talking to relatives, and even though doctors are normally investigated for overstepping this mark, they are rarely charged. [Usually this is by withdrawing treatment or administering pain-relief in lethal doses. Often doctors act after talking to patients and their relatives. Occasionally, when doctors overstep the mark, they are investigated, though rarely charged.] Numerous people welcome this fudge given that it lays limits to PAS albeit with no need to articulate the contentious moral choices involved. [Some people welcome this fudge because it establishes limits to doctor-assisted dying without the need to articulate the difficult moral choices this involves.] This is unethical and unworkable given that the explicit choice to die that should be in the hands of a patient is left in the doctor’s hands. It is hypocritical and goes against the individual civil liberties as society pretends to shun PAS while tacitly and subtly allowing it without safeguards. [But this approach is unethical and unworkable. It is unethical because an explicit choice that should lie with the patient is wholly in the hands of a doctor. It is hypocritical because society is pretending to shun doctor-assisted dying while tacitly condoning it without safeguards.] Physician-assisted dying in its openness will fix this practice of deaths through nods and winks that contravenes individual rights. [Most deaths now take place in hospital, under teams of doctors who are working with closer legal and professional oversight. Death by nods and winks is no good.]

Gopal also suggests that, the fear that physician-assisted suicide will be foisted on vulnerable individuals, bullied by rogue doctors, cash-strapped states, panicking relatives, and parsimonious insurers is unfounded. [One fear is that assisted dying will be foisted on vulnerable patients, bullied by rogue doctors, grasping relatives, miserly insurers or a cash-strapped state.] The Oregon experience, where a law allowing PAS has existed since 1997, points to the enhanced recognition of civil liberties. Individuals who choose doctor-assisted dying are in fact insured, well-educated and getting the best palliative care. [Experience in Oregon, which has had a law since 1997, suggests otherwise. Those who choose assisted suicide are in fact well-educated, insured and receiving palliative care.] These individuals are motivated by the desire to maintain their own dignity, pleasure in life, autonomy, and the pain that comes with some conditions. [They are motivated by pain, as well as the desire to preserve their own dignity, autonomy and pleasure in life.]

[The text in blue comes not from Steck, Egger, Maessen, Reisch, & Zwahlen, nor from Gopal, but from the same Economist article not named in the References. ]

Physician-assisted suicide (PAS) can be caused by the fact that there is no available care for the victim patient. According to Ardelt Monika in the handbook of death and dying 1 “Physician-assisted death,”  palliative care strategies can be effectively utilized to ensure that lives of patients are prolonged rather than shortened. It is not something that can be advocated to have the patients’ lives shortened and yet there are care services that can be incorporated to assist patients to recover from acute suffering. There are quality end-of-life programs available through many hospitals. The focus should not be whether to legalize and give patients a right to decide for their lives, but it should be aiming to provide services that guarantee life for patients. The emphasis should be trying to improve hospital care. Ardelt also claims that, there are more than 4000 hospital agencies in the United States, but due to regulations and strict laws and the rigidity nature of the Medicare hospital cover requirements patients to possess a life expectancy of six months or less, many people in the USA fail to access these services. If the trend continues, then definitely there will be more PAS scenarios and people will be committed to fighting for their rights to die through physician-assisted method. In the US, there is excellent terminal care, which is readily available in many hospitals. Every individual in all states has access to hospital care when they require it. This is made available for people of all ages, either the elderly, children, rich, poor and even the mortal people. A significant number of individuals who die in the US die under the care and the umbrella of hospital premises. The fact is not because there is no sufficient care in the US hospitals; it is not because, in America, terminally ill patients are beyond control, no, this is simply because PAS has been legalized by many states. Making the doctors lazy in the administration of required care, hence assisting patients to die early.

It is evident that at some point, PAS can be recommended for the patient who is terminally ill and experiencing acute pain, but still, we need to look at it adverse effect in the healthcare industry. There is a possibility that advocating for PAS will make many physicians to cause more harm than good. According to Margaret Somerville and Dr. Boudreau, Donald, first, physician-assisted suicide is not the core aim of a doctor, professionally. The sole role of a physician is to support the good health of a patient and assist the patient as much as possible to ensure prolonged healthy life. Permitting PAS publicly will make the doctors lazy in the provision of quality palliative care services, which are aimed to support quality life. The involvement of physicians in PAS raises the question of ethical medical practice. The physician should not assume that facilitating the death of a patient is a unique role, it is not something to recommend but to avoid at all cost.

In conclusion, physician-assisted dying is the ultimate protection of individual civil liberties in the ongoing euthanasia debate. Just as people have the right to life, they have a right to autonomy, happiness, and pleasure in life; elements that are guaranteed through the right to choose a dignified death that alleviates unnecessary suffering. Anti-PAS proponents suggest that it will open the doors to a slippery slope of forced death on vulnerable patients, but evidence from Netherlands and Oregon show that this is a myth if strict controls are in place. After all, the right to die for patients has for long been practiced by physicians and relatives on behalf of patients through the withdrawal of medication or prescription of pain medication. Physician-assisted suicide is fixing this subtle illegal practice by placing the right to die in the patient’s hands hence protecting civil liberties.

References

Denton, A., Levett, C., Bradley, S., & Thoma, L. (2016). Death and dignity: Why voluntary euthanasia is a question of choice. Australian Nursing and Midwifery Journal24(6), 18-23.

Gopal, A. A. (2015). Physician-Assisted Suicide: Considering the Evidence, Existential Distress, and an Emerging Role for Psychiatry. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law43(2), 183-190. Retrieved from http://jaapl.org/content/43/2/183

Hoxhaj, O. (2014). Euthanasia – The Choice between the Right to Life and Human Dignity. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies3(6), 279-284. doi:10.5901/ajis.2014.v3n6p279

Sommerville, M. A. (2014). Death talk: The case against euthanasia and physician-assisted Suicide (2nd Ed.). Sydney, Australia: McGill-Queen’s Press-MQUP.

Steck, N., Egger, M., Maessen, M., Reisch, T., & Zwahlen, M. (2013). Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide in Selected European Countries and US States. Medical Care51(10), 938-944. doi:10.1097/mlr.0b013e3182a0f427

Boudreau, Donald J., and Margaret A. Somerville. “Physician-assisted Suicide Should Not Be Permitted: option 1.” The New England Journal of Medicine 368.15 (2013): 114-145. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305322708_Euthanasia_and_assisted_suicide_a_physician’s_and_ethicist’s_perspectives

Kopelman, Loretta M. “Does physician-assisted suicide promote liberty and compassion?.” https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-010-9631-7_6

Physician-Assisted Suicide: What are the Issues?. Springer, Dordrecht, 2001. 87-102. https://www.springer.com/us/book/9781402003653

Ardelt, Monika. “Physician-assisted death.” Handbook of death and dying 1 (2003): 424-434. https://med.virginia.edu/wisdom/publications/ardelt/

Boudreau, Donald J., and Margaret A. Somerville. “Physician-assisted Suicide Should Not Be Permitted: option 1.” The New England Journal of Medicine 368.15 (2013): 114-145.

Kopelman, Loretta M. “Does physician-assisted suicide promote liberty and compassion?.”

Research—Marvel

Let’s Resist Resistance

Current hygiene practices increase our contraction of infectious disease. We have all seen the signs on the bathroom door or next to the sink that reads “employees must wash hands.” This signifies that OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) recognizes the importance of washing our hands after using the restroom. If this sign is abided by, customers are put at ease when eating at their favorite restaurant or buying muffins from their local baker. Customers can be rest assured that they are not going to contract some vile food borne illness that will knock them out of commission for days. We forget about the dish rag that has been used all day to wipe the counters, or the bench seats at the diner that haven’t been cleaned properly. There is a growing need to address the way we clean and the products we use to clean. This extends to the antibiotics we take to “clean” our bodies and the antibiotics we use to treat the animals we eat.

The invention of penicillin awarded Alexander Fleming the Nobel Prize in 1945. Fleming warned during his acceptance speech that the overuse of antibiotics would lead to a decline in their effectiveness. This overuse happens when bacteria evolve to have stronger defenses against certain antibiotics. The overuse is dangerous because as we take more antibiotics, bacteria are getting stronger and more likely to have a defense against the very thing meant to kill them. Today we are seeing an increased awareness to antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. Immuno-compromised persons are at an increased risk due to their susceptibility to bacterial infection. This population consists of elderly and children as well as any persons with an existing condition that would weaken their bodies ability to fight infection. Compounding these issues is improper hygiene amongst people that service these immuno-compromised people.

According to The American Journal of Infection Control we should be taking a “risk-based approach” to hygiene. Knowing which cleaning products to use and when to use them is crucial to appropriate hygiene. Author, Sally F. Bloomfield says in an article titled, A Risk Assessment Approach to use of Antimicrobials in the Home to Prevent Spread of Infection” that “detergent-based cleaning can be used to break the chain of infection, in some cases an antimicrobial agent is required.” At one time, using an antimicrobial agent in the home was unnecessary but with a growing immune-compromised population that is receiving similar care in home as they once saw in a hospital it is becoming more crucial. This crucial step breaks the chain of the bacteria and allows for the person in contact with a once contaminated surface to now be safe from any bacterial infection. In addition to this step being crucial for the reduction of an infection, it also limits the use of antibiotics to treat an infection. By limiting the use of the antibiotics, we see a reduction in the risk for antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria.

Along with direct use of antibiotics in humans for treatment, the United States meat industry began using antibiotics both as a tool to keep animals from getting sick and as a tool to aid in weight gain. This practice is adding to the inappropriate hygiene practices. Maryn Mckenna writes in an article titled Drugs: gut response?, that “By saturating the environment with antibiotic residues, Blaser argues, we have effectively recreated that weight-gain programme in humans — and the result has been the seemingly unstoppable increase in obesity, especially in children.” This article is from the International Journal of Science. Mckenna is reviewing an article written by Martin J. Blaser on how the overuse of antibiotics is “Fueling our modern plagues”. Essentially, we are contaminating our food now with a product that was meant to treat infection. In doing so we are seeing a similar response in humans that these farmers see in their animals such as weight gain. Weight gain has many health repercussions on its own and now add to that the use of the antibiotics affecting efficiency when a person is ill. On top of the now sometimes inefficient antibiotics, Blaser discusses the idea that the overuse of antibiotics is destroying healthy benign bacteria that are necessary for normal, healthy, human function.

It appears that we are at a boiling point. With things like resistant bacteria and a growing immune-compromised population it is crucial that we begin to make strides in practicing appropriate hygiene. We can’t let that sign in the bathroom fool us. Just washing our hands is not enough. Appropriate hygiene goes beyond hand-washing.

Overuse and misuse of antibiotics leads to an increased occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. We have an infestation of some mutant bug, a spider-cockroach hybrid that isn’t afraid to charge at us when we try to kill it. So, we call a professional to exterminate the hybrid monster bugs. The exterminator uses a substance that kills 95% of the spider-cockroach mutants but leaves 5% not killed. Now imagine, not only are these hybrid bugs not dead but they are now stronger. They have been exposed to the substance that killed the other 95% and have evolved to defend against that lethal substance. In addition, they are multiplying and passing their enhanced defense against the killing substance to their young. Antibiotics are designed to treat bacterial infection. Not unlike the substance used by the exterminator. They attack bacteria within the body by either killing the bacteria or stopping the bacteria from multiplying. Antibiotics are meant to be used as a last line of defense. The human body can usually stop an excess of harmful bacteria from multiplying without the use of antibiotic; however, there are instances when the bacteria becomes too great for a healthy immune system. This is when antibiotics are effective.

Antibiotics are only effective when prescriptions are followed through. A doctor will prescribe a specific number of pills to rid the body of the infection. If we fail to follow though and take all the pills, then the above analogy proves true. We will have exposed some bacteria to the drug meant to destroy them but not enough to kill them. Now exposed, those bacteria grow stronger. They will no longer be killed by the antibiotic first prescribed. Thus, this misuse of antibiotics increases the likelihood of an antibiotic resistant bacteria.

The use of antibiotics in animal agriculture is also contributing to resistant bacteria. Most of the meat found at the local grocer is contaminated with antibiotics. The farmers we buy our meat from are using these antibiotics to increase their profits. Antibiotics contribute to weight gain of their livestock, giving them more inventory, and keep their livestock healthier, giving them more inventory. The situation: animals take antibiotics, whether needed or not, increasing the likelihood of developing resistant bacteria, we eat the animals containing resistant bacteria resulting in the introduction of that resistant bacteria to our system. The microbial ecosystem of the animals we eat is interwoven in such a way that it is unable to be separated from our own. This makes this passing of resistant bacteria impossible to negate unless we were to not feed livestock antibiotics.

The discovery and development of antibiotics improved people’s lives, providing treatments that were more effective than their predecessors. What was once a potentially deadly infection can now be treated with amazing efficacy. Arsenic, a deadly poison in a high dose, was once the only method of treating infection. In small doses arsenic would attack the unwanted bacteria, but this was a precarious scenario. Too much arsenic would have an adverse effect, potentially killing the consumer. Enter the “Age of Antibiotics,” states Gerard D. Write in his book, The Origins of Antibiotic Resistance and we see drastic improvements in the field beginning in the 1940’s. However, resistance was inevitable from the start.

We need to figure out a way to combat resistance. In the article, What’s old is new: Reconfiguring known antibiotics to fight drug resistance,” from the journal Nature Medicine, Shraddha Chakradhar proposes that the way to do that might be by changing current antibiotics. Chakradhar states, “Turning to pre-existing drugs to make antibiotics more effective against drug-resistant strains of well-known pathogens is especially appealing given that no new class of antibiotics has been approved for nearly 30 years.” This argument does not address why no new class of antibiotics have been approved and therefore leaves us wondering, is it perhaps policy that needs to change? Moreover, she states that “drug companies and the US government have invested more than $1 billion combined toward the development of new antibiotics, just within the past decade,” which again screams at a potential flaw in how we go about approving these new antibiotics. According to the UK’s Chief Medical Officer, Sally Davies, there is a, “‘ticking time-bomb’. She says this is because of an overuse of antibiotics and the lack of new drugs coming on stream—no new class of antibiotics has been discovered since 1987,” from the Cancer Nursing Practice Journal, written by Nick Triggle.

The approach of “reconfiguring” existing antibiotics does nothing to address the problem with over-prescription. Over-prescription and misuse are negating any efforts to create stronger more effective drugs. Linda Bren quotes Stuart Levy, M.D., president of the Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics. “”The number of bacteria resistant to many different antibiotics has increased, in many cases, tenfold or more. Even new drugs that have been approved are confronting resistance, fortunately in small amounts, but we must be careful how they’re used. If used for extended periods of time, they too risk becoming ineffective early on,“” in her article, Overprescription of Antibiotics Has Led to Resistant Bacteria, Dr. Levy warns us that if we continue to overprescribe, even new drugs will become ineffective.

References

Aiello, A. E., & Larson, E. (2003). Antibacterial cleaning and hygiene products as an emerging risk factor for antibiotic resistance in the community. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 3(8), 501-506. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(03)00723-0

Bloomfield, Sally F., PhD, BPharm, & Scott, Elizabeth A., PhD, MPhil. (2013). A risk assessment approach to use of antimicrobials in the home to prevent spread of infection.AJIC: American Journal of Infection Control, 41(5), S87-S93. doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2013.01.001

Bren, L. (2006). Overprescription of Antibiotics Has Led to Resistant Bacteria. In A. Hiber (Ed.), At Issue. Are Americans Overmedicated? Detroit, MI: Greenhaven Press. (Reprinted from FDA Consumer, 2003, September) Retrieved from http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/EJ3010471213/OVIC?u=rowan&sid=OVIC&xid=04a2ea06

Brian N Tse, Amesh A Adalja, Christopher Houchens, Joseph Larsen, Thomas V Inglesby, Richard Hatchett; Challenges and Opportunities of Nontraditional Approaches to Treating Bacterial Infections, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 65, Issue 3, 1 August 2017, Pages 495–500, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix320

Chakradhar, S. (2016). What’s old is new: Reconfiguring known antibiotics to fight drug resistance. Nature Medicine, 22(11), 1197-1199. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm1116-1197

Coates, A. R. M. (2012;2014;). Antibiotic resistance (1. Aufl. ed.). Heidelberg;New York;: Springer. https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.rowan.edu/book/10.1007%2F978-3-642-28951-4

Davies, J., & Davies, D. (2010). Origins and evolution of antibiotic resistance. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 74(3), 417-433. doi:10.1128/MMBR.00016-10

McKenna, Maryn, (2014) Drugs:Gut Response. Nature Publishing group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved. Nature volume508, pages182–183. Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/articles/508182a

Nordqvist, Christian. “Antibiotics: Uses, Resistance, and Side Effects.” Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 25 July 2018, www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/10278.php

Shlaes, D. M. (2010). Antibiotics: The perfect storm (1st;1; ed.). New York;Dordrecht;: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-9057-7 https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-90-481-9057-7

Triggle, N. (2013). Overprescription of antibiotics is a ‘ticking time-bomb’: Chief medical officer points out that cancer patients are at increased risk of infections. nick triggle reports. Cancer Nursing Practice, 12(3), 6-7. doi:10.7748/cnp2013.04.12.3.6.p10926

Twomey, Carolyn (2006). Hand Hygiene. Infection Control Today. Retrieved from https://www.infectioncontroltoday.com/hand-hygiene/hand-hygiene-0?nck=1.

Witte, W. (1998). Medical consequences of antibiotic use in agriculture. Science, 279(5353), 996-997.

 

 

Research- Baahubali

As we all know that a great memory can’t be forgotten easily, similarly a legendary star is still not forgotten by the people even after his farewell; that is MICHAEL JACKSON. People and his fans have still not forgotten him. We still think that he is between all of us and soon his new album will be launched. Michael Jackson once said that, “a star can never die. It just turns into a smile and melts back into the cosmic music, the dance of life.” From abused child to the King of Pop, Michael Jackson’s success story is one of the most inspiring in history. MJ was born on August 29, 1958 in the Gary, Indiana. The most important people in his life were his 8 siblings, 5 brothers and 3 sisters. They all were so close that started a pop band along with their father. By the young age of 11, Jackson had his own T.V. series. Continuing his success and fame he used his talents to release his first solo album by the age of 14. Throughout his youth, Michael, along with his brothers and sisters, performed as a local song-and-dance act (successtory).

Success is not something that is bought, it has to be earned. Similarly the king of pop had faced many hardships mentally and physically growing up. He was loved by millions all around the world, however the only person that did not give him love and affection was his own father, Joseph Jackson. Day after day he and his four siblings used to be abused at rehearsals and at home. “Joe Jackson would beat his children if they missed a step, missed a note, or simply not performing well.” (A tragic childhood). His father enforced fear among the children with his presence, to the point that MJ and his brothers used to get physically ill. Due to his strict father by the age of 9 he was described as an adult in a child’s body. As he gained more fame as a solo artist, he was able to escape his father’s abuse. Because of his early maturity, he lost a childhood he once dreamed of. He was able of relive his childhood by spending time with kids and acting childish. Many tabloids judged his childish behavior. Soon in 1970 his four songs were number one hits on billboard. Continuing his journey, in 1982 the Thriller album was released leading him to worldwide success.

Some may describe him as a nonhuman or superhuman due to his unique dancing style and talents. One of his known talents was moonwalk and the 45 degree lean. With all his unique dance moves he inspired a generation with a new dance styles. He reinvented the definition of dancing in front of the world. The way he danced kept him ageless and inspired many cultures all around the world. Through his dance moves he was able to tell a story about the song which made him well known and liked. His songs introduced him to people who did not know him already. Most of u who never knew him, felt like we did know him. His soulful presence makes him a legacy worth celebrating. His concerts were an unforgettable experience for his fans as he was very energetic and soulful music that filled their hearts. He had his own way of walking, talking, singing, dancing and entertaining which made him different form other celebrities. There was fame, and there were pop stars, and there was entertainment, and somewhere above it all was Michael Jackson.

Some of the hardships he went through were controversial such as the allegations of sexual abuse of a thirteen year old boy and was charged for rape and molestation. Despite the allegations that were made, his fans still supported him and believed that he was innocent. They used many media outlets to support him which got the attention of the world and he was proven to be innocent in the end. Looking at the evidence that was found by the police, he was proven to be innocent because he only played with the kids but never sexually assaulted them. This proved that he was supported and loved by all his fans and the world that he only loved children.

There will be no legend like Michael Jackson since he had his own style and it is something that cannot be witnessed anywhere else in the universe. He was a onetime legend that continues to live in our hearts even though he has lived for a short period of time. Now he is in another world but still visits in our dreams and at award ceremonies as he is honored. He comes in various ways whether it is dancing, singing, or his music. There is always a glimpse of him in any song today and in the past. Michael Jackson admired many legends such as Fred Astaire and James Brown. He achieved success by finding motivation through them. Now history repeats again as many singers such as Usher and Jennifer Lopez look up to Michael Jackson as inspiration and role model.

Even though he has faced a lot of struggles in his life, he managed to overcome them and inspire a generation to work hard and achieve their goals. Michael Jackson became an international legend that lives in everyone’s hearts. His dancing, style, and music is still played today and every song brings him back alive in happy or sad times. The media has bashed him in many ways saying that he was a bad a person. All his fans still had faith in him and believed in the kind soul that he was. Michael Jackson has become a house hold name worldwide and continues to live through people’s hearts. People are still star struck by his presence and aura as he is one of the most talented people in the world. Even though some people have never met him, they feel like they have always known him. Above all music legends, Michael Jackson continues to inspire for generations to come and will never be forgotten in a lifetime.

The only person in the whole world that can match Michael Jackson’s steps and his legacy is Michael Jackson himself. Although he departed from this planet to some other world, he managed to imprint himself in the hearts of people. Just like your shadow never leaves you, the same way Michael Jackson never left us. He is still relevant in today’s world of music and entertainment. His music and his style is evergreen and he is setting example for the current and next generations to come. Whenever music, dance or entertainment is mentioned, his name will never fail to be cited. He is also known in history as a triple threat. The multi talented superstar, had a unique knack for composing music, singing and choreographing his own dance. Starting from an early age, he gave up his childhood, to live his dream by entertaining people. Now, he is the world’s biggest superstar.

Even at a young age, Michael was able to captivate millions of people’s hearts all around the world.  When he started singing with his 4 brothers in the Jackson 5 Band, many people always thought he stood out from the rest with his unique dance style, his fun energy, and ability to entertain. His popularity lead to his fans committing suicide when he passed away. His funeral had been witnessed more times than the 9/11 incident on the news channels and social media. It caused the Internet to crash and many search engines to stop working. Popular singers in this generation, incorporate his dance style and fashion into their own music and fans remember him through new singers in this way. The rhythm and tunes in his music is also used in new music and has inspired a new generation of artists.

Even though, Michael Jackson was a legend of his time, others may say that he was just as famous as other stars. But that’s not true. At some point he was diminished from his stardom and earning potentials. This these was due to the drug and the sex abuse charges on him. And by that people were considering him as a characterless man and a rapist. And to justify that statement, according to CNN, Jackson’s collection deals dropped strongly from his top and his “likability” rating turned drastically negative after the significant negative news about the accusations of consumption of drugs and sex abuse. And that’s not it, he was also found guilty for making small boys “drink alcohol.” And if he was a legend, which means that he supposed to have all the ‘hit albums.’ Rather that he had many about 6-7 failed albums such as Invincible, Ben, Music and Me, Got to be There, etc. and apart from that he was bankrupted and not granted any loans. And at some point he didn’t even have money to perform shows. And gradually his stardom faded with time. And by the above point it clearly states that if he was a “mega star” then he wouldn’t have faced such hardships and money problems.

Although he might be seen as an average celebrity by some people, he was a legendary singer with the sweetest heart in the world. He stood out from all the singers because he was different from dancing, singing, to entertaining and helping many people who were in need. He was not like others because he donated a large amount of money, like no other celebrity, to many poor people and the African American. Jackson dedicated his life to the joy of children and inspired them to live their dream. He had the most incredible and supportive fans that no other celebrity experienced before. He has been a savior to the African American community and raised millions of dollars with the song, We Are the World, and donated all the money to them. He visited many Medical Centers for leukemia and other cancer research and donated a 19 bed unit to the hospital with his own money. He donated 1.5 million dollars from his Pepsi Commercial when he founded the Michael Jackson Burn Center. Towards the end of his life, he setup the Michael Jackson United Negro College Fund for education for poor people who could not afford an education. He always knew the importance of education and accomplishing their dreams. He set up this outlet for young children to find a purpose in their lives with his own money. It is very rare that any celebrity would do this much for people in need. Most celebrities would spend the money for themselves or to small charities, but all his money and earnings went towards people who were in need. The amount of lives he has helped with those foundations and charity work, is something that sets him apart from others. His heart was like no other celebrity or human being and gave instead of gaining. Michael was extra ordinary when it came to his achievements. He sold close to 750 million copies of his album. Compared to modern day celebrity, Beyoncé has sold close to 150 million. Michael Jackson has surpassed great expectations. Even though he lived a short life, he has achieved the goals of a life time that no other person can achieve.

Looking back at all the things Michael has done for the world of entertainment and music, there is no doubt that he stands out from the other singers.  He has helped so many people in need and personally visited sick people and even donated his hard earned money to them. Jackson has donated a lot towards education, hospitals, research centers for the happiness and health of people. There are no tabloids or articles that can make anyone forget all that he has done for people. Michael Jackson was not only a legend in music, but also became a legend in the hearts of people around the world. Even though, he is not in this world with us, his charity work continues to help the poor and his music is still played to this day. The people who he helped still remember him for his good deeds and reminisce his good heart. Even after the king of pop was laid to rest, he was still in the thoughts of many staff members and charity owners, who were with him when helping those in need.

Along with the people who worked with him, his fans’ hearts broke into pieces. A voice that made them happy and joyful, disappeared into heaven. Since Michael Jackson had a lot of fans, it was hard for them to accept his death which caused his fans to commit suicide and others were in denial. Some fans went through an immense amount of depression. The thought that he was maybe still alive was not enough to console their hearts.  As soon as the news broke out that Michael Jackson has passed, many fans around the world made many tributes to him and honored him in several ways. They held memorials, candle lights, and placed flowers at places that he has set foot. It was a sad time for the world. Many fans felt like they were with him every step of his life and suddenly he was gone. Many fans showed up to the funeral and cried along with their family members. Since he was such a unique talent and an inspiration, it was hard for fans to accept his death and were mentally affected by his death. It took many decades for fans to recover. But his music has helped in healing every fan around the globe. Since many fans kept him in his hearts, his top seven songs reached the top of every music chart and his albums were sold out very quickly. Just hours after his death, the sales of the songs and albums have increased rapidly. Even though, he was not there for his scheduled concert, Colombia Pictures sponsored a movie on the legend and played it in all the cities he was supposed to tour. Many fans who lost hope, felt like he was still alive and connected with them. His death affected different social media outlets which caused his doctor to be questioned and arrested because many fans felt like his death could have been prevented if his doctor was more careful.

As the king of pop was laid to rest, fans’ hearts broke into pieces. A voice that made them upbeat and blissful had vanished into paradise. Since Michael Jackson had a part of fans, it was difficult for them to acknowledge his passing , which caused his fans to commit suicide and others were in denial. A few fans went through a colossal sum of sadness. The thought that he was possibly still alive was not sufficient to support their hearts. As before long as the news broke out that Michael Jackson had passed, numerous fans around the world made numerous tributes to him and regarded him in a few ways. They held dedications, candle light vigils, and put blooms at places that he had set foot. It was a pitiful time for the world. Numerous fans felt like they were with him each step of his life and all of a sudden, he was gone. Numerous fans appeared up to the burial service and cried alongside their family members. Since he was such a special talent and a motivation, it was difficult for fans to acknowledge his passing. They were irrationally influenced by his passing.

Many fans have lost hope that Michael Jackson would never come back again and their inspiration was gone from this world. Fans could not bare the news of his death and did not how to cope with the loss.  Most fans created sadness when he passed, which lead to 12 individuals commit suicide after agreeing to the pioneer of his fan club. This shows us that how much he had his impact around the world. Since this was such an concerning issue, the suicide cases lead to respectful right dissident, Jesse Jackson, to talk out around the issue and threat with respect to the suicide. She made a video on YouTube with respect to the suicide cases to anticipate others from committing suicide and to possibly diminish the number of suicide cases. The message was expressed as “We fall down sometimes, we get back up. That’s the right thing to do. In Michael’s name let’s live together as brothers and sisters and not die apart as fools” (Jesse Jackson). The YouTube video was spread all over from social media outlets to news channels for fans who seem not to adapt with the misfortune. They got the support and consolation that they required which motivated them to proceed their life and honor him. Fans started rallies, candle marches, events where they laid flowers, and memorials. His music too made a difference by laminating fans with the misfortune. Especially, his melody, You Are Not Alone. Numerous fans associated with the verses and had a feeling in their hearts that he was still alive. Due to the recordings and back, the fans gotten, the number of suicides was exceptionally few. In the recordings and endeavors were not made, at that point the suicide rates seem have expanded to millions of individuals in committing suicide.

The reaction of his death was so intense that it had caused Internet Trafficking. Social media outlets such as Twitter, Facebook, YouTube hits, and Google were jammed. This appeared how impactful his passing was. Virgin Media stated “It was the first time we have had so many crashing problems since 9/11 attack”. People want to reach out via social media outlets about his death which caused crashing problems. During his live broadcasting of his funeral, 31 million viewers were watching this excluding the attendees. Celebrities gave speeches, provided performances, and attended his funeral. They represented his friendship, wonderful heart, and the hero he was to millions of people.

Despite the fact that he was laid to rest, fans still believe that he is still alive. It was hard for his fans to believe that he was gone for good to a whole new different world. His fan following has caused a huge impact around the world and his death has caused an even bigger impact. Many fans have suffered a lot when he passed. Fans have developed depression and committed suicide. But, most fans found hope through his music and through honoring him in several ways such as memorials and tributes. Many fans felt like they were a part of his life and shared their experiences online. It caused an intense amount of attention which caused internet trafficking. Fans believed that even if he was laid to rest, his music and legacy would never disappear. He inspired a whole generation through fan following about living your dream and never giving up on life. Fans have kept that in their hearts and continued to carry his words in their everyday lives. There is not a single a day where someone forgets who Michael Jackson really was and what he has done for the world and his fans. His words still inspire the world to keep believing in themselves and to live life to the fullest. Jackson always said “If you enter this world knowing you are loved and you leave this world knowing the same, then everything that happens in between can be dealt with”. Fans loved him and Michael Jackson knew he was loved when he died as well. He full filled his life, but his legacy still inspires.

References

A&E Television Networks, “Michael Jackson is born” (March 4, 2010).
https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/michael-jackson-is-born

Grammy awards; “10 Reasons Michael Jackson Became the King of Pop” (May 15, 2017).
https://www.grammy.com/grammys/news/10-reasons-michael-jackson-became-king-pop

Lacienega. “Michael Jackson Info: Rhythm of the Tide.” Rhythm of the Tide, (15 Oct. 2011. Web. 11 Dec. 2014.).
http://rhythmofthetide.com/joe-jackson-and-abuse-michael-jacksons-childhood/

“Michael Jackson Biography.” Bio (Nov 18, 2014).   http://www.biography.com/people/michael-jackson-38211#synopsis

Pflum, Mary, and Sarah Netter. “Growing up as Michael Jackson: Coming out of Hardship Came Success.” ABC News. (26 June 2009. Web. 18 Nov. 2014.).
http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/MichaelJackson/story?id=7936932

Quote; “A star can never die. It just turns into a smile and melts back into the cosmic music, the dance of life.”
http://www.top10-best.com/m/top 10 best michael jackson quotes.html 

Robinson, peter; “Blessed with an almost superhuman aura, Michael Jackson was his own unique creation,” (Fri 26 Jun 2009, 18.00 EDT).
https://www.theguardian.com/music/2009/jun/26/pop-star-michael-jackson

Segal, Lewis; “why Michael Jackson danced like no one else,” (JUNE 26, 2009, 10:56 AM).
http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/culturemonster/2009/06/michael-jackson-a-dancer-like-no-other.html

Wikipedia, “1933 child sexual abuse accusations on Michael Jackson,”
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1993_child_sexual_abuse_accusations_against_Michael_Jackson

“Fans of Jackson stricken with grief commit suicide.” The Perez Hilton, (30, 2009 9:00am PDT).
https://perezhilton.com/2009-06-30-fans-of-jackson-stricken-with-grief-commit-suicide/

Colothan, Scott, “12 Michael Jackson Fans ‘Commit Suicide’ In Wake of His Death.” Gigwise, (09:52 30th June 2009).
https://www.gigwise.com/news/51468/

Jasmeeen, “Michael Jackson’s death- how did it effect the media?” wcsfmedia, wordpress (September 6, 2013).
https://wcsfmedia.wordpress.com/2013/09/06/michael-jacksons-death-how-did-it-effect-the-media/

Quote; “If you enter this world knowing you are loved and you leave this world knowing the same, then everything that happens in between can be dealt with.
http://www.top10-best.com/m/top_10_best_michael_jackson_quotes.html

BBC NEWS, ‘Michael Jackson ‘made some bad choices’, (26 September, 2013).  https://www.bbc.com/news/entertainment-arts-24280890

‘Michael Jackson charity work’, look to the stars
https://www.looktothestars.org/celebrity/michael-jackson

‘Michael Jackson: critics review his legacy’, The Telegraph, (5:00AM BST 27 Jun 2009).
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/music/michael-jackson/5654966/Michael-Jackson-critics-review-his-legacy.html

Duke A., “Bad news hurt Michael Jackson’s earning potential, witness says”, CNN Entertainment, (9:30 AM ET, July 30, 2013).  https://www.cnn.com/2013/07/30/showbiz/jackson-death-trial/index.html

Research Paper – Ivonid12

We Should get Defensive

Why does the NFL always disrespect defensive players in the MVP voting?  Elite defensive players are in many ways more valuable than a good quarterback and should be considered every season for MVP. What will it take for another defensive player to win MVP? It is becoming more of a proven fact that as the seasons through the NFL progress, quarterback after quarterback, and sometimes a running-back, is named MVP with defensive players never even getting consideration. Alan Page won the MVP award in 1971, and Lawrence Taylor in 1986, and not another defensive player before or since, in 52 years of MVP awards! While the NFL gets more offensive by the year, and defensive players have to adjust constantly to produce results, defensive players fall further, and further out of the public eye. Every season, rules are changed to favor the offense: casual touches by defenders are called “pass interference”; accidentally grazing the quarterback is called “roughing the passer.” Fans love scoring, long drives, marching down the field to sticking the game-winner in the back of the end zone, and the NFL knows it. Year after year, offense is valued more, and defense gets disrespected. Sadly, the economic model of the NFL means this probably won’t change.

One of the central questions posed recently by those who debate sports, is whether or not defensive players should be valued more since offense is easier than ever to come by. Since we are in the 2018 season currently, offense is as common as ever, as of before  week 7’s games, there are three teams averaging 30+ points per game, and another ten average 25+ points per game. Compare that to last season, and offense has clearly increased, as not a single team averaged over thirty points, and only eight averaged 25+ points per game. While the season is still young currently, and averages are likely to go up and down, the recent increase is undeniable, and more sustainable compared to last year. Mark Maske of The Washington Post states in his article “For the NFL there is no such thing as too much scoring” how offense through week 6 is at an all time high, and offense is at its easiest to come by. He states “The 4,489 points, 504 touchdowns and 328 touchdown passes recorded league wide thus far are the most ever, in each case, through six weeks of an NFL season”, concluding that these changes are certainly the new league wide trend. It has also shown no signs of slowing down as of now, but many believe, such as the NFL’s executive vice president of football operations, Troy Vincent that defense might adjust stating, “They will adjust. I think as we start getting into that real playoff run, we’ll start seeing the points normalize itself.” With all  these stats, opinions, and records in mind, the value of great defensive players should increase.

First of all, defense players have a harder job than ever in the game today. With a new catch rule, constant pass interference calls, and  a now more strict roughing the passer penalty, no wonder so many more points are being scored, as even the best defensive players are having a hard time. With all the new additions of these rules, however, a player that still performs despite all these limitations,  surely must get some consideration for Most Valuable Player Honors. With the current modern offensive system in place, guys that are great now, are really great compared to a lot of great players before their time, yet they still get little to no consideration for MVP.

Second of all, that one, great, future hall of fame defensive player can not only change the outlook of an entire defense,  but help the whole team as well. When you have a player that is that dominant at that position he plays on defense, he helps the rest of the entire defense play better meaning he’s most valuable. A great linebacker who plays the middle, can command the defense, cover receivers, and help tackle the quarterback or running back. A great defensive back can lock down parts of the field single handedly, forcing opposing offense to play around them and target another part of the field. Let’s not forget a dominant edge rusher, who can set the edge in the run game, as well as sack the quarterback and apply pressure leading to more turnovers and more opportunities for the offense. There have been great examples of players like this in the history of the NFL, and yet they never even sniff the opportunity to win that most valuable player trophy.  For example, a corner like Deion Sanders, is considered by many to be the greatest ever, as he always locked down the opponent’s best receiver when asked to, and even provided value in the return game, as he held the record for most kickoff and punt return touchdowns in NFL history, until it was recently broken by Devin Hester. Deion Sanders never even won an MVP award even though you could tell, he was the best player on the field. Another great example would be Ray Lewis, who is also considered the greatest at his position and has never won an  MVP even though he essentially ran the whole defense. As the middle guy, you tell your teammates to adjust, what the play is, and what they need to do to succeed, and while he was the first defensive player on the cover of madden, he never won an MVP award. As for an edge rusher, an amazing example is one that is occurring this season with Khalil Mack of the Chicago Bears. The Raiders foolishly traded their best player in Khalil Mack off their team, and are now the worst team in the league. The Bears on the other hand, now have one of the league’s best defenses, and are at the top of their division likely to head to the playoffs. With Mack’s  presence, the  whole defense has performed better, going from a good defense last season, to an elite defense this year. This is a great example of how a defensive player  can shape the whole outlook of a team, and the previous examples are guys in the hall of fame such as Ray Lewis, and Deion Sanders, who won super bowls because of their play. Yet continuously year in and year out, an offensive player wins the MVP award.

The MVP trophy in any sport always goes to who is considered the best player in the league that year, and on their team. It is a measure of the players great accomplishments in comparison to the rest of the best in their league. The competition is always fierce, but every year a player is voted by the Associated Press and is deemed the best, In the NFL, the league is disgustingly biased towards quarterbacks in their voting, as in the league’s history, exactly one defensive player player won the MVP award, with a few cases of running backs able to win the award as well. The absolute dismissal of the defensive player in recognition is disrespectful, and must end as soon as possible. Without a defense with great players, the quarterback wouldn’t nearly have the same success as he would with a bad defense. A great defensive player creates opportunities for that great quarterback and team, as without those opportunities by that great defensive player, the  quarterback cannot make his great plays possible.

The objective of any defense in the NFL is easy in concept. Get the opposing team’s offense off the field so the offense go and put points on the board. The best way to do that is to force a turnover. Whether it is a sack, fumble recovery, interception, or touchdown, the defense forcing turnovers is what provides an offense with the best chance to succeed. According to past history, a majority of MVP quarterbacks are those with defenses that force a good amount of turnovers. For example, in 2010, Tom Brady was the  first unanimously voted MVP in NFL history, and had an amazing year leading the Patriots to the Super Bowl. Brady was undoubtedly great, but his defense gave him plenty of opportunities, as the 2010 New England Patriots were second in turnovers on defense. The 2010 New England Patriots had many great defensive players that season, however as with most great defenses, the defensive got a significant boost from their best player. According to Pro Football Reference, Devin McCourty, a defensive back, on his own forced nine of the 38 turnovers the Patriots forced as a team, as he had seven interceptions, and two forced fumbles. McCourty forced just a hair under a quarter of his team’s turnovers by himself, yet he wasn’t even considered as an MVP candidate as opposed to his quarterback teammate. Another prime example of a quarterback’s great offensive season overshadowing an even better and more valuable performance by a defensive player is the 2011 Green Bay Packers, and their MVP winning quarterback Aaron Rodgers. The great defensive performance that season was by future hall of fame defensive back Charles Woodson who, in comparison to McCourty mentioned before, had an even better year. In 2011, Woodson led the league in interceptions with seven, had two sacks, forced a fumble, and even scored a touchdown on defense, all at the age of 35. Woodson had an absolutely outstanding season at the very old age of 35 as a defensive back, yet he received no consideration for MVP. Also, due to the performance of the defense and Woodson, the Packers were also third in starting field position as a team, undeniably caused by the defensive contributions of Woodson. Woodson undeniably impacted his team the most that year, and was easily the best and most valuable player on the filed for his team. Yet despite his efforts, was never considered for MVP as his teammate took home the award.

Turnovers are crucial to winning a football game. It is also crucial to win MVP for a quarterback. In fact, for 75% of the teams in which the NFL MVP came from since the 2000 to 2017 seasons, the team was in the upper half of the league for turnovers. The NFL MVP must’ve had a defense providing plenty of opportunities for the offense, further cementing the fact that defenses and its stars deserve more credit, and are more valuable. If the defense provides more opportunities for the offense, the offense succeeds as a whole. Along with turnovers comes the field position that they provide. Usually when defenses give up points, the kickoff sets the offense on the 25 yard-line to start their next drive due to a touchback, unless the returner decides to make a return in which it could be more or less field position. However, if a turnover is made, a majority of the time the offense gets great field position. With great field position, not only can the defense demoralize the opponent after a turnover, the ability to score is so much easier.  The less field you have to drive down, the easier it is to score, all caused by a great play made in the defense. Turnovers also negatively impact the opposing team’s defense as well. We’re all humans playing in the NFL, and we only have a certain amount of energy before we need a break to refresh and maintain our abilities. Whenever defenses force a turnover, that break the defense could so desperately need is cut short, and now they’re back on the field to try and stop that offense. With less time for a break however, their chances of stopping that offense diminish further. The quarterback cannot make plays and put up stats if never given enough opportunities. Additionally the quarterback can make more plays and given a better chance to put up numbers if given great field position. Lastly, opposing defenses cannot make plays if the great defenses always bring them back on the field.

However, undoubtedly the most biased and disrespectful case for a defensive player not winning MVP was for J.J Watt of the Houston Texans in 2014. J.J Watt accounted for a majority of the Houston Texan’s production in 2014, and was easily the main cause for their winning record. Watt had an unbelievable season in 2014, as he notched twenty and a half sacks, four forced fumbles, recovered five fumbles, lead the league in tackles for a loss with 29, scored a touchdown with an interception as a defensive lineman, and to top it all off, scored three more touchdowns playing offense. When has a NFL quarterback produced on both sides of the ball, dominating on one, and being quite productive on the other? J.J Watt was easily the most valuable player on any field in 2014,  and while he did receive votes for MVP, he still ultimately lost out to Aaron Rodgers in 2014. Watt’s season was greater than Lawrence Taylor’s MVP season, in an era of more productive offenses, yet he still didn’t receive the credit he deserved.

Defensive stars are undoubtedly the best players on the field, and deserve more recognition for MVP. Not only due their defensive efforts cause more opportunities for the offense, defenses have the ability to score and put up points as well. It is time we recognize those truly great defensive seasons for what they are, a representation of the most valuable player on the field that season.

With so much value, stats, and versatility from defensive stars, voters still gravitate towards quarterbacks every year. Even though defensive stars are much more valuable in many factors, it is easy to see why quarterbacks get so much recognition. Former quarterback Steve Young, now an NFL Analyst, shares the same opinion with a lot a fans and those who have the opinion on why quarterbacks are the most valuable.  Young states, “The great quarterbacks get everyone together, when it’s third and 10 in the fourth quarter, down by four on the road in the drizzling rain in 33 degrees. You have to be a guy that people will respond to.” While it is true that the quarterback is unquestionably the leader of the offense, the defensive captain does the same as well. A defensive captain is more of a team leader than a quarterback as their play has more of an impact to both sides of the ball. Young also states, “I’ve gone to law school, and the intellectual challenge of honing all of the data in a way that you can have immediate, you can have reflexive recall — not taking a couple seconds to think about it. But that’s five, 10, 30 times more time than you get in football. And you have to do it from the time you step on the field until you step off of it.” Once again, Young’s argument on quarterbacks having to make decisions in a extremely small amount of time isn’t wrong and is certainly difficult, however, quarterbacks get the whole play clock to diagnose the field ahead of them, while defensive players get mere micro-seconds. Many great quarterbacks such as Brady, Brees, and Manning are great because of their pre-snap diagnosis of the defense and are able to find the weak spots in the defense. Defensive players do not get the same ability to study what their opponent is doing pre-play, and mostly have to react to what happens before their eyes. Every play the defense is at an immediate disadvantage in comparison to the offense, because their diagnosis is more of an educated guess. Quarterbacks are also given designated reads as well, as the NFL is more coach driven than ever. Before every pass play the quarterback has his “go to read” as his main option, designed by the coaching and system the quarterback has in place for him. If the quarterback doesn’t like his first read, there’s always his second or third, and if the pass play doesn’t seem like the best option, he can always switch it to the run. In addition,  quarterbacks in the league are more system driven than ever before. The NFL is filled with plenty of young, strategic, and brilliant offensive minds in the league right now, and it is undeniable what their impact is on young quarterbacks in the league right now. A great example of how much a new offensive system can benefit a quarterback is two of the better young quarterbacks in the league in Jared Goff, and Mitchell Trubisky. Trubisky and Goff were number two, and number one picks respectively, had different coaches their rookie seasons, and are now much more successful after struggling their rookie seasons. Jared Goff came in the league with the now unemployed Jeff Fisher as his head coach, and struggled mightily in his rookie season, throwing more interceptions than touchdowns. Ever since Sean McVay was hired in 2017, Goff has performed as one of the best quarterbacks in the league, as he is now a MVP candidate with his team having one of the best records in the league. The same could be said for Mitchell Trubisky, as the hiring of now head coach Matt Nagy has kick-started his career after the bad struggles with former head coach John Fox. Trubisky has performed like one of the better quarterbacks in the league, since the hiring of Coach Nagy, and his career is for sure on the upswing. In contrast, defensive players do not have this same luxury as quarterbacks, mainly because their performance is much more predicated on their talent. Defensive systems do not nearly affect defensive stars in comparison to offensive systems, as great defensive players stay great on different teams. Deion Sanders played at a high level for three different teams, and is arguably the greatest all time at his position. There’s a reason most franchise quarterbacks stay with teams and coaches for most their career, as the offensive systems the quarterbacks are given is a major reason for their success. Plenty of defensive players have switched teams and have remained just as great.

Lastly, quarterbacks by far touch the ball the most out of any position on the field, as unless it is a direct snap to a different position, the whole offense runs through the quarterback. With the league becoming more pass heavy by the season, quarterbacks now throw the ball more than ever, leading to an inflation in stats and attention. If you compare the pass attempts per game for every team in the NFL in 2018 to 2008, there are a few teams that pass 40+ times a game, and rarely any that pass under thirty. In 2008, no team passed over 40 times a game, and the average pass attempts per game for every team was about 32.35 attempts per game. In 2018, that average has increased to 34.89, and could become higher as the season progresses. With the increase of screen passes and check downs, in recent years, quarterbacks get rewarded more than ever with a pass that barely travels five yards. In comparison to defenses, there are no easy plays to be made, and require the fast thinking and talent of making an interception or forcing a fumble.  Quarterbacks have to have some semblance of knowledge and ability, but with constantly evolving offensive systems, and more time than any other position, they receive much more credit than they really do deserve.

Defensive stars are undoubtedly the best players on the field, and deserve more recognition for MVP. Not only due their defensive efforts cause more opportunities for the offense, defenses have the ability to score and put up points as well. It is time we recognize those truly great defensive seasons for what they are, a representation of the most valuable player on the field that season.

References

  1. “2010 New England Patriots Statistics & Players.” Pro-Football-Reference.comhttp://www.pro-football-reference.com/teams/nwe/2010.htm.

2. “2011 Green Bay Packers Statistics & Players.” Pro-Football-Reference.comhttp://www.pro-football-reference.com/teams/gnb/2011.htm.

https://www.pro-football-reference.com/awards/ap-nfl-mvp-award.htm

4. “J.J. Watt Stats.” Pro-Football-Reference.comhttp://www.pro-football-reference.com/players/W/WattJ.00.htm.

5. “NFL Team Points per Game.” NFL Football Stats – NFL Team Points per Game on TeamRankings.comhttp://www.teamrankings.com/nfl/stat/points-per-game?date=2018-02-05

6. Maske, Mark. “For the NFL, There Is No Such Thing as Too Much Scoring.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 17 Oct. 2018, http://www.washingtonpost.com/sports/2018/10/17/nfl-there-is-no-such-thing-too-much-scoring/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.b3be62c525fc.

7. “2000 Baltimore Ravens Statistics & Players.” Pro-Football-Reference.comhttp://www.pro-football-reference.com/teams/rav/2000.htm.

8. 28, January. “Steve Young: Quarterback Is the Most Important Position in Football.” Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles Times, 28 Jan. 2012, articles.latimes.com/2012/jan/28/sports/la-sp-steve-young-20120129.

9. “Mitchell Trubisky Stats.” Pro-Football-Reference.comhttp://www.pro-football-reference.com/players/T/TrubMi00.htm.

10. “Jared Goff Stats.” Pro-Football-Reference.comhttp://www.pro-football-reference.com/players/G/GoffJa00.htm.

 

 

Research- Peter Bomersbach

No Violent Video Games for Kids

Kids have been taken over lately with the distraction of video games which gets in the way of their social and educational life. Violent video games thrown in to the mix makes it even worse due to changing of behaviors such as aggression and thought process which later has great effects on their mental health. Parents need to pay attention to their kids in which they know what game they are playing and for how long because it can easily get out of hand. Nothing good comes from kids Violent video games except wasting good time to focus on school or have a social life.

An article “Study confirms link between violent video games and physical aggression,” written by the author Mike Snider says, “An international study looking at more than 17,000 adolescents, ages nine to 19, from 2010 to 2017, found playing violent video games led to increased physical aggression over time.” This study shows that there is a direct correlation with violent video games and kid’s aggressive behavior towards others. Video games such as Call of Duty and GTA are perfect axmples of violent video games kids should stay away from and parents should be aware of. My brother Nicholas gets very agitated when he plays violent video games such as Call of Duty because it’s a violent video game and aggressive actions are portrayed toward his friends or family.

Violent video games have more of an effect on just children’s behavior but other things such as emotions and exposure to graphic images like gore and shooting. Authors Lauren Goldbeck and Alex Pew wrote an article, “Violent Video Games and Aggression,” which states, “In 2017, the APA Task Force on Violent Media concluded that violent video game exposure was linked to increased aggressive behaviors, thoughts, and emotions, as well as decreased empathy.” This explains violent video games lead to decreased empathy due to increased exposure to blood and gore, violent language etc.. Thoughts and emotions can lead to mental health problems as a kid grows up which can be deadly to the family if not taken care properly.

Violent video games can easily be avoided by played the correctly rated game and with a managed time for other activities like playing sports or hanging out with friends. If kids dedicate their lives to video games in general they have a very small chance of going somewhere with that as a career. There are plenty of other opportunities to take on at such a young age, they can’t let it damage their mind at this young when that have so much to live for.

Violent video games desensitize individuals from real-world occurrences. Within a first-person shooter game which rewards players on getting kills and causing damage to other players, that effects how they would act in real life shootings or situations which don’t have rewards or killstreaks. Ultimately, Individuals who are exposed with the virtual experience will not know how to act in the proper manner in rea life. Scenes or events should be taken out of such video games entirely or have the scenes recreated in a respectful manner. The developers can input scenes or practices within games which accurately portrays what is needed or what actions should take places within the given situations. We don’t know what such scenes have done to these individuals playing the game, when the situation arrives we will be able to tell or it might be too late.

Violent video games are video games that have a rated M on them and rated by ESRB. An article from “HowStuffWorks” stated, “Games marked M are for people 17 and older. They usually have very violent or gory content, strong language and possible nudity.” Violent Video Games are often likely are involved in categerories such as blood and gore, strong language, sexual content etc.. Most of the video games now have their fair share of violence and guns which puts bad images into kids head’s. Now the problem we are faving is if these video games are too violent and cause desensitization in individuals who witness these actions.

Anyone who plays these violent video games is a target for desensitization. If they want to beat the whole game or experience what the developers have to offer then they have to go through all of the violence. Retailers are The initial problem because they sell the video games in the first place so they have to abide by the rule of rated M games which is ages +17. “A new survey from the Federal Trade Commission found that more retailers and movie theaters are enforcing age-based content ratings by turning kids away” (Adweek.com). This is what we need to follow, like California, we need to enforce these age rules on video games so it does not effect the players. The sooner we change our rules involving retailers willing the games, the better.

The debate on whether violent video games can cause aggressive behaviors or not change anything at all. Violent video games lead to aggressive behavior, change in social life and much more and is most commonly found within various studies on humans. Then there are studies where researchers try to discover the effects of violent video games and find no correlation between a change in behaviors and playing mature video games. The reaction of playing violent video games depends all on the personality of the human playing the video game. You can have a child with an outgoing personality have no effect and a child with a timid, shy personality with a dangerous effect. For me personally, playing violent video games have no effect on me whatsoever but as far as my brother goes, he is a totally different situation.

Video games can be a different experience for everyone who plays, it all depends on their personality. In an article, “Violent Video Games May Increase Aggresion in Some But Not Others, Says New Research,” Dr. Ferguson said, “Violent video games are like peanut butter” He also said “They are harmless for the vast majority of kids but are harmful to a small minority with pre-existing personality or mental health problems.” This is like the situation for my brother, I am fine after playing violent video games but on the other hand he is not. Aggression is the leading cause as to why violent video games get so much attention, even at this point in time the majority of violent video games is what all gamers enjoy.

There are plenty of studies out there that try to prove no connection between violent video games and aggressive behavior. In the article, “No evidence to support link between violent video games and behavior, the University of York stated in their study, “In a series of experiments, with more than 3,000 participants, the team demonstrated that video game concepts do not ‘prime’ players to behave in certain ways and that increasing the realism of violent video games does not necessarily increase aggression in game players.” This quote from the University of York explosions what they found but they are missing key factors such as the participants past and what they have been through or their personality before beginning the study. They also mentioned how increasing how real the virtual situation is in game might prepare them for real life but that was not the case since they achieved mixed results. Other studies suggest people who play violent video games become desensitized by the graphical images in game and become immoral when it happens in real life. Author Cheryl K. Olsen from the Massachusetts General Hospital posted an article, “Children’s Motivations for Video Game Play in the Context of Normal Development,” stating, “Researchers are now exploring what children can gain from electronic games, often emphasizing their potential to teach academic skills.” This explains what children can do with potential of playing the right kind of video game.

 

Sources:

Goldbeck, L., & Pew, A. (2018, March 27). Violent Video Games and Aggression. Retrieved October 17, 2018, from http://www.center4research.org/violent-video-games-can-increase-aggression/

Snider, M. (2018, October 1). Study confirms link between violent video games and physical aggression. Retrieved October 17, 2018, from https://www.google.com/amp/s/amp.usatoday.com/amp/1486188002

HowStuffWorks. (2007). Choice Reviews Online, 45(03). doi:10.5860/choice.45-1203

Ferguson, Christipher. “Violent Video Games May Increase Aggression in Some But Not Others, Says New Research.” American Psychological Association, American Psychological Association, 7 June 2010.

No Evidence to Support Link between Violent Video Games and Behavior.” ScienceDaily, ScienceDaily, 16 Jan. 2018.

Olsen, Cheryl K. Children’s Motivations for Video Game Play in the Context of Normal Development. Massachusetts General Hospital, 16 Jan. 2010.

Morris, C. (2011, June 27). Violent Videogames Can Be Sold to Minors: Supreme Court. Retrieved October 23, 2018