Reflective- beachgirl6

Core Value 1. My work demonstrates that I used a variety of social and interactive practices that involve recursive stages of exploration, discovery, conceptualization, and development.

As someone who is not the best writer, this class was a major challenge to me. However, I definitely feel as my writing skills have improved since the beginning of the semester. When I went to revise my short arguments, I realized how much I actually improved. This is specifically the case for my Definition Rewrite. I changed my hypothesis many times throughout the semester and ultimately had to make significant changes to my definition argument. I researched and read many different sources before finalizing my hypothesis, as social media has been a topic that has been overdone. Even though this took a lot of time, I feel proud of the work I did, as took the topic of social media and made it my own by discussing the variations of how it does not help children. I discussed my thesis many times with my roommate and close friends many times, but ultimately, being able to have one on one conferences with Professor Hodges gave me the opportunity to collaborate with him in my research. If it weren’t for these conferences, I wouldn’t have been able to form my hypothesis.

 

Core Value 2. My work demonstrates that I read critically, and that I placed texts into conversation with one another to create meaning by synthesizing ideas from various discourse communities. 

Having to come up with my own research topic and find research to back up my hypothesis was a big challenge. I had to spend a lot of time researching for evidence that could help prove that my hypothesis is true. In my research paper, I used a variety of sources intertwined together to help strengthen my thesis. Being able to combine different research together made my argument as strong as it could be, and helped me explain why social media is a problem for today’s youth. I made sure to explain in my paper what information belonged to who, but in the end, I created work that helped make my research paper what it is now, while of course keeping my academic integrity and cite my sources.

  

Core Value 3. My work demonstrates that I rhetorically analyzed the purpose, audience, and contexts of my own writing and other texts and visual arguments.

I believe my rebuttal rewrite represents this core value very well. When writing my definition and causal arguments, I was only focusing on one side of the argument I was making, which is that social media hinders children’s development and that parents need to be responsible for their children. However, there are two sides to every story. In my rebuttal, I wrote about how children don’t need their parents, and that they are capable of taking care of themselves by learning from their mistakes. In the argument, however, I made sure to refute this by saying why kids need a positive role model in their life to guide them to make the right decisions. I had to write a different purpose for my thesis that was intended for a different audience but had to refute it to get my point across.

 

Core Value 4: My work demonstrates that I have met the expectations of academic writing by locating, evaluating, and incorporating illustrations and evidence to support my own ideas and interpretations.

The visual rhetoric is a great example of this core value. We had to watch a 30-second ad council. Public service announcement without the sound while describing the video second by second. At first, I thought this was going to be an easy assignment as I just had to write down what I saw. While this is true, I also had to incorporate the director’s intentions. Thus, this assignment incorporated the use of illustrations while describing what these visuals were to supposed to make the audience feel. I had to go back and re-watch the video multiple times to understand what the smallest details meant as well as why the camera angle was placed where it was. Bringing in my own interpretations along with the illustrations helped me interpret the director’s intentions.

 

 Core Value 5. My work demonstrates that I respect my ethical responsibility to represent complex ideas fairly and to the sources of my information with appropriate citation. 

Academic integrity is one of the most important things to me, as it should be for every student as well. I wouldn’t be able to include my own thoughts and opinions in my work if I didn’t research and read another people’s work. My annotated bibliography encompasses my ethical responsibility of a writer and student, as I explained what the source was about, and most importantly, how I used them in my research paper. Even in my research paper, I made sure to use cite each source in the correct way, as well as use quotation marks for all direct quotes, even if they were two words. This core value will forever main the most important to me, as I can never take credit for anyone else’s work but my own.

Annotated Bibliography- beachgirl6

Burns, J. (2016, July 18). Social media harms moral development, parents say. Retrieved December 06, 2018, from https://www.bbc.com/news/education-36824176

Background: A study in the UK with 1,700 parents with children who were aged 11 to 17 answered questions on if they thought social media was affecting their children’s moral development. Most parents said their children were more hostile and had bad judgments. These parents hoover did think that social media had positive effects on their children as they did see that their children were more honest and had more self-control.

How I Used It: I used the information about how more kids were experiencing anger, arrogance, ignorance, and bad judgments to help me explain how social media impairs children’s development. Specifically, how their morals can change and affect the way they live.

 

Chin-Hooi Soh, P., Wai Chew, K., Yeik Koay, K., & Hwa Ang, P. (2017, November 05). Parents vs peers’ influence on teenagers’ Internet addiction and risky online activities. Retrieved December 04, 2018, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0736585317301491

Background: This research report explains how strong parent-child attachment leads to the appropriate use of the internet. If parents set guidelines and communicate with their kids, fewer problems may happen as a result. As long as parents keep up to date about their children’s activities online, “risky online behaviors” are less likely to happen.

How I Used It: I used this research report to help me explain how parents need to be actively involved in their children’s media use. For instance, I sued the study about how 733 adolescents are most likely to stop online risky behaviors like sending inappropriate messages to others when they tell their parents what they do online.

 

Common Sense Media. (2016, May 03). New Report Finds Teens Feel Addicted to Their Phones, Causing Tension at Home | Common Sense Media. Retrieved December 06, 2018, from https://www.commonsensemedia.org/about-us/news/press-releases/new-report-finds-teens-feel-addicted-to-their-phones-causing-tension-at

Background: A study with 1,240 parents and kids done in 2016 found how many parents and teens think they addicted to social media. Parents explained their concerns for their children’s use with their phones and felt that they were addicted to them. Developing a problematic media use can impact the way kids develop as well.

How I Used It: I sued this information to explain how parents are concerned about their children’s media use. Specifically, how over half of the parents surveyed feel that their kids are addicted and that 36% of parents feel that their kids’ media use causes conflicts in their families.

 

East, S. (2016, August 01). How does social media affect your brain. Retrieved November 29, 2018, from https://edition.cnn.com/2016/07/12/health/social-media-brain/

Background: This article from CNN explains different ways children react to social media. It shows how adolescent’s brains can react to using social media, along with how they may be pressured by their friends to post or like risky photos. The article also depicts how social media is a new way for people to learn how to interact with others just by simply liking a photo. Overall, social media is changing how we adapt to life to communicate with others.

How I Used It: I used this article to explain why children can become addicted to the internet, Because the internet activates the part of the brain that controls the reward center, this can lead to teens using social media more often, as seeing the likes on their own photos gives them a sense of confidence. Furthermore, I used this information to prove how internet addiction is becoming prevalent in more adolescents and why they use it so much.

 

Felt, L., Robb, M., & Gardner, H. (2016). TECHNOLOGY ADDICTION concern, controversy, and finding balance. Retrieved from https://www.commonsensemedia.org/sites/default/files/uploads/research/2016_csm_technology_addiction_executive_summary.pdf

Background: This research describes how parents and teens feel about their technology use. It also defines was problematic media use is and talks about how internet addiction is becoming more of a problem for kids as it hinders their ability to empathize with people. Furthermore, it talks about how parents need to find a balance for media use for their kids and that they need to be engaged with their online activities.

How I Used It: This research helped me define problematic media use is and how it is unhealthy for kids. I also used information about how too much media can negatively affect the way kids develop empathy. I also use this research to talk about how social media is a good thing for kids as they can meet new friends who share the same interests, as long as they use it appropriately.

 

Harley, D., Morgan, J., & Frith, H. (1970, January 01). Growing up Online. Retrieved November 29, 2018, from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/978-1-137-59200-2_2

Background: This chapter explains how social media is a big factor in the development of adolescents. It explains how social media is a way for kids to create their own identity and self-disclose information they want to online. The internet can affect the ways in which teens disclose themselves in real life to other people, and they may not always match how their online identities. Overall, children are learning how to grow up in this digital world.

How I Used It: I used the information about how kids can become so entranced with the online “world” that actually prefer that world over real life. If kids already suffer a form of anxiety, in this case, social anxiety, social media is an outlet for them to express themselves and communicate with others without that fear of disapproval in real life.

 

Jiang, J. (2018, September 14). How Teens and Parents Navigate Screen Time and Device Distractions. Retrieved November 29, 2018, from http://www.pewinternet.org/2018/08/22/how-teens-and-parents-navigate-screen-time-and-device-distractions/

Background: In this article by the Pew Research Center, a study was done that found how any teens thought they were spending too much time on their phones and silica media, and what parents thought of their kid’s social media use. The study was done with 743 U.S. teens and 1,058 U.S. parents of teens. These teens described the different feelings they have when they aren’t around their phones. These feelings included loneliness, anxiety, being upset, relieved, or happy, with only 17% feelings happy.

How I Used It: I included information about how 54% of U.S. teens feel they spend too much time on their phones, and 46% of them think they spend too much time on social media. I also included information about how their parents, specifically how almost three-quarters of them think their teen spends too much time on their phone. This helped me argue how teens may develop an internet addiction.

 

Lester, H. (2018, February 09). Technology Misuse, Abuse, & Addiction Among Teenagers. Retrieved November 29, 2018, from https://www.councilonrecovery.org/technology-misuse-abuse-addiction-among-teenagers/

Background: This article by The Council’s Blog described how social media can cause problems for adolescents when used in the wrong ways. Tech ology can become so addictive that. Is basically acts as a drug as it gives off dopamine to the brain. Teens addicted to their phones can even develop anxiety and depression. The article explains how “Fear of Missing Out” or “FOMO” can cause teens to become addicted to social media as it is. Way to be connected to their friends online. The same goes for video games as kids not only want to feel connected to their friends, but the games allow them to feel a sense of control. The article explains how parents need to step in to help their kids by finding a balance with their technology use so they don’t misuse it.

How I Used It: I used this article to explain how social media can affect the brain. Technology helps satisfy our needs for interaction with others and can, therefore, become addictive since it provides an easy way to fulfill those needs. It basically provides the brain with dopamine with one click.

 

Livingstone, S., Blum-Ross, A., & Zhang, D. (2018, May). What do parents think, and do, about their children’s online privacy? Retrieved from http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/87954/1/Livingstone_Parenting%20Digital%20Survey%20Report%203_Published.pdf

Background: This research report examines a survey of 2,032 parents of children from the ages of 0 to 17 in the UK. It shows many statistics about how parents view their children’s privacy as well as their own privacy online. It also shows parents are still learning about these new media sites and how their children are interacting with them. Furthermore, it explains the worries parents may have about sharing information and photos of their children online.

How I Used It: I used this report to show how parents are still worried about their children sing media sites. Parents are concerned with allowing their children to use the internet without supervision, and that 49% of these parents in the survey checkup 9-12-year-old children’s online activities.

 

O’Keeffe, G. S., & Clarke-Pearson, K. (2011, March 29). Clinical Report—The Impact of Social Media on Children, Adolescents, and Families. Retrieved from https://www.cooperativa.cl/noticias/site/artic/20110329/asocfile/20110329173752/reporte_facebook.PDF

Background: In this article, the American Academy of Pediatrics describes how social media is dangerous for adolescents. Parents do not understand fully how they can become more aware of what their children are doing online so they may not understand some of the dangers their child may face. For instance, their children could be cyberbullied or experience “Facebook depression.” This type of depression is caused by the need to be accepted by their peers. Still, the main risk these adolescents face is the lack of understanding of privacy and self-disclosure.

How I Used It: I used this article to help me describe the dangers of cyberbullying and the lack of understanding these kids have to what could possibly happen when they share too much information or false information. They can experience such intense bullying online that they can experience anxiety, depression, or may even commit suicide.

 

Shapiro, L., & Margolin, G. (2013, May 04). Growing Up Wired: Social Networking Sites and Adolescent Psychosocial Development. Retrieved November 29, 2018, from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10567-013-0135-1

Background: This research report by Springer Sciences and Business Media shows how social networking sites affect how adolescents develop their own identity as well as how they self-disclose themselves online. Teens may only share information they want to or present themselves in a different way to appeal to different audiences. Responses from others can further impact the way they firm and change their identity. Social networking sites can still be a good thing or kids, however, as they can join groups online that pertain to their interests.

How I Used It: I used the information from this research report to explain how self-disclosure can lead to changes in how adolescents may change their identity online to conform to others. I used the hyperpersonal model in my research to explain how individuals can self-select the information they want to present online, and how this can alter their own and other’s perceptions of them. This can lower their self-esteem if their audience reacts negativity to the information they share online. Furthermore, I used information about how these teens can communicate with other teens with similar interests to form new relationships.

 

Uhls, Y., Ellison, N., & Subrahmanyam, K. (2017, November 01). Benefits and Costs of Social Media in Adolescence. Retrieved November 29, 2018, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/140/Supplement_2/S67

Background: In this article, the American Academy of Pediatrics explains the positive and negative features of social media.  Some of the positive things are that kids can find their identity by disclosing information about themselves online. They are able to present themselves I. away that helps them explore who they are, which can ultimately lead to a clearer understanding in their real lives. By doing this, they are also creating new relationships with friends, as approval is highly important for their development. However, some of the negative aspects of social media is cyberbullying. If adolescents self-disclose information about temples, sometimes their peers may react negatively. This can lead to lower self-esteem.

How I Used It: I used this article to explain the negative aspects of social media, which is cyberbullying. When adolescents share information about themselves, especially if it is false information to present themselves in a different way to appeal to others, people may react in a negative way. This can lead to depression and lower self-esteem

 

Wisniewski, P. (2018, March). E Privacy Paradox of Adolescent Online Safety: A Matter of Risk Prevention or Risk Resilience? Retrieved November 29, 2018, from https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=8328977

Background: In this article, Pamela Wisniewski from the University of Central Florida talks about a paradox that teens tend to have when disclosing information about themselves online. This paradox is about teens over sharing information online yet not wanting their parents to know what they post. However, Wisniewski explains how parents should not take overly protective measures to limit social media use for their kids, as it hinders their development. Parents need to step away from using protective spy-like apps and let kids be able to self-regulate themselves, thus improving relationships with their parents.

How I Used It: I used this article to help me refute why adolescents shouldn’t self-monitor themselves. Wisniewski thinks that a “teen-centric” approach is good so that kids to learn from their mistakes and develop self-regulating skills. She explains how parents need to take a step back and let their kids learn how to be safe while not having their parents intervene with their online endeavors. This information helped me with my rebuttal as I argued that parents should be aware of what their kids post online and that they need guidance.

 

Worsley, J. D., McIntyre, J. C., Bentall, R. P., & Corcoran, R. (2018, May 25). Childhood maltreatment and problematic social media use: The role of attachment and depression. Retrieved November 29, 2018, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165178117318668

Background: This research report from Psychiatry Research explains how childhood maltreatment leads to problematic internet use. Professors from the University of Liverpool study how different forms of child abuse leads to different attachment anxieties, such as insecure attachment or anxious attachments. These attachment styles describe how children seek social media as a safe haven to interact with others and escape the hardships of their lives. However, using social media becomes a problem as is replaced a person who is trustworthy with the internet.

How I Used It: To further understand how social media is a problem for adolescents, besides how it causes depression and feelings of isolation, this research shows how advanced the problem of social media is for kids already struggling with adversities in their everyday lives. These children suffer from attachment deficits that make them unable to form new relationships, therefore they seek the internet rather than a positive role model to talk to.

 

Causal Rewrite- beachgirl6

Consequences of a Double Life

As a society, we are very fortunate to live in such a technologically advanced era. For instance, the way children are being raised in today’s world is far more advanced than it has ever been. Adolescents of generation z are being brought up with their own personal computers where they can get all the information at the tips of their fingers. Moreover, these kids are able to communicate with others instantly, which in turn helps them decide how they want to be personally. However, these adolescents don’t understand the consequences of their actions, especially if they use the internet in a way to escape their real-world problems. Specifically, some of the most vulnerable kids who are more susceptible to anxiety and depression, like those who come from a background of childhood abuse, have more obstacles to face since the internet can hinder their development.

The most common abuse children face are emotional abuse and physical and emotional neglect. This type of childhood maltreatment has affected the way these young adults grow up. As a way to escape their hardships, these kids turn to the internet as it acts a safe haven for them. However, using the internet for this purpose has caused these adolescents to develop problematic internet use. A research report from Psychiatry Research called “Childhood maltreatment and problematic social media use: The role of attachment and depression” did a study at a university in North West New England. The 1,029 students who participated in the research were random college kids aged 17-25 who found out about this study through their university’s mass email. These students were just like any college kids, coming from different backgrounds and facing different hardships. A survey was using the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale measured if childhood maltreatment caused problematic social media use because of the cause of attachment anxiety. A personal health questionnaire was also used that screens for depression. The results came to that 31.8%, or 327 students, experienced some sort of maltreatment as a kid. Of those 327 students, 84.4%, or 276 students, had insecure attachment anxiety. Results showed that the insecure attachment and depression symptoms affected problematic social media use.

Since these kids do not have a trusted adult they can go to with their problems, they are left to find solutions for themselves. This specifically includes going onto the internet to try to escape their real-life problems. However, they can develop anxious attachments that can detrimental to their development. If adolescents experience anxious attachment, Psychiatry Research explains that they will create a “negative image of the self” and will engage in “hyperactivating strategies” to get close to others. Psychiatry Research also explains that adolescents could experience avoidant attachment where they develop “a negative image of others and a deactivated attachment system.” This makes it harder to form relationships with others as they will have a lack of trust, resulting in the inability to form new relationships. Thus, kids who endured childhood maltreatment use social media as their safe spot, as it allows them to connect with others so they don’t have to face their fears of interacting with others face to face. But this can cause problematic internet use as they are not using the internet in the appropriate ways.

Furthermore, because adolescents with a background of childhood abuse are more likely to develop problematic internet use, they use social media as a way to create a new persona of themselves. A research report from Springer Science and Business Media called “Growing Up Wired: Social Networking Sites and Adolescent Psychosocial Development” explains that adolescents are conflicted with the problems of standing out or fitting in with their peers when forming their own personal identity. Moreover, these adolescents want friendships where they can trust one another wither problems. But how can they do this if they suffer from insecure or avoidant attachment anxiety? This is where social media sites step in to help, as they act as a place where these kids can be anyone they want to develop new friends. Springer Science and Business Media explain that it’s up to them to decide how accurate they “portray their identities online.” According to the hyperpersonal model, Springer Science and Business Media explain that “adolescents engage in selective self-presentations online.” These adolescents can do whatever they want with their presentations, but with this type of power comes consequences for their actions. If they decide to change their sense of self online for different people, it would be harder to change their sense of sense back in their offline lives. More importantly, “negative feedback” can lead to lower self-esteem and hinder their development even more.

Adolescents, especially those with some form of social anxiety, become so comfortable in social media that it actually becomes, according to Chapter 2 of the book Cyberpsychology as Everyday Digital Experience across the Lifespan, a “reality of choice.” So comfortable that, in fact, in Japan, the name hikikomori, meaning “pulling inward, being confined” has been given to teens who essentially “live online, never leave home, and remain with their parents.” Social media is a way for these teens to avoid “social situations” so they can live in a “comfortable medium” so that they don’t have to deal with disapproval from others. Kids who suffer from childhood maltreatment may already be suffering from the insecure or avoidant attachment that is so extreme that they may just never leave the internet to talk to others to avoid rejection altogether.

One may think social media’s main use is to simply connect others, but the bigger picture shows that social media can be harmful for the next generation. Adolescents use social media as a way to escape their hardships in the offline lives, yet essentially create a whole new life as if they are living in a fantasy. This doesn’t change their actual lives though, as they still need to come to terms with what they are dealing with and what type of person they want to be when handling their problems. Creating a false identity may seem like a great idea to become who they want to be, but these adolescents still need to find ways to handle their real-life problems instead of ignoring them. By ignoring their problems, they are just creating a new one by overusing social media.

 

References

Harley, D., Morgan, J., & Frith, H. (1970, January 01). Growing up Online. Retrieved November 29, 2018, from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/978-1-137-59200-2_2

Shapiro, L., & Margolin, G. (2013, May 04). Growing Up Wired: Social Networking Sites and Adolescent Psychosocial Development. Retrieved November 29, 2018, from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10567-013-0135-1

Worsley, J. D., McIntyre, J. C., Bentall, R. P., & Corcoran, R. (2018, May 25). Childhood maltreatment and problematic social media use: The role of attachment and depression. Retrieved November 29, 2018, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165178117318668

 

 

 

Definition Rewrite- beachgirl6

The Real-life Problems of Online Activity

Society has never been so fortunate to live in such a technologically advanced world. Being able to access any information within seconds, along with having the ability to be in contact with friends and family who live anywhere in the world has shaped everyday life. Raising the next generation of kids has its new challenges to it since their lives now are heavily influenced by the internet. However, internet and social networking sites can impact how kids live their own lives and find their own sense of self. Adolescents can develop problematic internet use to create a fake persona of themselves online that lead to negative consequences with their offline relationships.

More kids are using technology than ever before. In fact, on average, adolescents spend at least 9 hours on social media. Furthermore, a study done by the Pew Research Center from March 2018 to April 2018 of 743 U.S. teens and 1,058 U.S. parents of teens found that 54% of teens spend too much time of their cellphones. As for social media, 41% of these teens think they spend too much time on it. Almost three-quarters of the parents in the study felt that their teen is too directed by their phone to even hold a conversation. Even more shocking is that 56% of teens feel “loneliness, being upset or feeling anxious” when they are not around their phone. These feelings can become so intense that teens can show signs of internet addiction.

Adolescents who develop an addiction to the Internet can be compared to those with an addiction to substances like alcohol and drugs, according to The Council’s Blog. The Internet can give off “some of the same dopamine rewards” that effects “the pleasure systems of the brain.” Social media can also alleviate any stress teens may be having as it is an easy way to fill the “human need for stimulation,” thus making it addictive. In addition, CNN reports that a study done by UCLA scanned 32 teenager’s brains when using an app that was like Instagram. It found that “certain regions of the brain became activated by ‘likes’, with the brain’s reward center becoming especially active.” This ultimately motivates teens to use social media more. Furthermore, Lauren Sherman, the lead author of the study explains how the reward center is more sensitive in adolescents, which explains why social media is so popular.

More importantly, children who have experienced childhood abuse are more likely to problematically use the internet as a coping mechanism to feel a connection with others. These children who have experienced emotional abuse or physical or emotional neglect are more at risk of developing an insecure attachment or avoidant attachment anxiety.  This can deprive these kids of developing healthy relationships in their offline lives, thus making them susceptible to develop a problematic internet use that enables them to create a false persona to connect to others.

Childhood maltreatment, according to a research report from Springer Science and Business Media called “Growing Up Wired: Social Networking Sites and Adolescent Psychosocial Development,” can cause future anxiety and even PTSD. These feelings can overwhelm adolescents, and they may feel that the internet is the only way to cope with their feelings. Since these kids don’t have the ability to go to a trustworthy adult to confide in, they will use social media to escape their hardships. In order to find some sort of connection with others, they will create a false persona of themselves to build a more sufficient self-image. Creating a fake persona does not take hard work, but it can be harmful to the individual. The main reason a fake persona is created is to be relatable to others so that friendships and relationships can be formed. Social media sites allow adolescents to post whatever they want, therefore it is easier to share whatever they want, even if it is false information. Moreover, this misinformation may not be linked to their true feelings.

According to Springer Science and Business Media, if teens don’t share false information online, they may just self-disclose only the information they want. Teens can decide how they want to present themselves, and this can lead to how high or low their self-esteem is by the reactions of others. Furthermore, Springer Science and Business Media explains how online self-disclosure is a “rehearsal” for offline self-disclosure. Depending on who the teen’s audience is, they will practice what information they want to reveal about themselves. So, if they are taking to a close friend online, they will most likely to reveal more information about themselves face to face. However, in general, their own profiles overall do not “portray their ‘ideal selves’.”

Although adolescents can spread false information about themselves to make themselves more extroverted and appealing to others, social media can actually be a good way to interact with others as long as it’s used appropriately. It can help their self-identity by allowing them to “join Internet ‘groups’ reflecting on the aspects of their identity that they wish to explore or deepen” according to Springer Science and Business Media. When teens use these social networking sites for good, they can develop new and authentic friendships. They can even connect with others who come from different backgrounds to create deeper connections.

Adolescents need to find a way to connect to others without fear of rejection. Whether this fear is because of not having similar interests to their peers or because of past traumas, social media use is starting to become a problem. The internet is supposed to be a place where people can share their lives with one another, but it slowly but surely is becoming an outlet to ignore one’s true feelings by creating a fake identity to create a whole new person they want to see themselves as. There needs to be a better support system for all children and young adults, regardless of their past experiences of trauma or mental illness. Social media is a part of everyday life, but the fact that it is starting to harm the next generation of kids is becoming dangerous for the future. The internet should be a place where adolescents are free to express themselves and not feel the pressure to act like others around them. Creating a sense of self is essential to the way each child develops, and social media may be a harmful place where false personas are taking over.

References

East, S. (2016, August 01). How does social media affect your brain. Retrieved November 29, 2018, from https://edition.cnn.com/2016/07/12/health/social-media-brain/

Jiang, J. (2018, September 14). How Teens and Parents Navigate Screen Time and Device Distractions. Retrieved November 29, 2018, from http://www.pewinternet.org/2018/08/22/how-teens-and-parents-navigate-screen-time-and-device-distractions/

Lester, H. (2018, February 09). Technology Misuse, Abuse, & Addiction Among Teenagers. Retrieved November 29, 2018, from https://www.councilonrecovery.org/technology-misuse-abuse-addiction-among-teenagers/

Shapiro, L., & Margolin, G. (2013, May 04). Growing Up Wired: Social Networking Sites and Adolescent Psychosocial Development. Retrieved November 29, 2018, from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10567-013-0135-1

 

Research- beachgirl6

Social Media Isn’t Helping Our Youth

Society has never been so fortunate to live in such a technologically advanced world. Being able to access any information within seconds, along with having the ability to be in contact with friends and family who live anywhere in the world has shaped everyday life. Raising the next generation of kids has its new challenges to it since their lives are now heavily influenced by the internet. However, internet and social networking sites can impact how kids live their own lives and find their own sense of self. Adolescents can develop a problematic internet to create a fake persona of themselves online that lead to negative consequences with their offline relationships. Even though social media is supposed to improve the quality of life for the next generation, the internet hinders children’s development.

More kids are using technology than ever before. In fact, on average, adolescents spend at least 9 hours on social media. Furthermore, a study done by the Pew Research Center from March 2018 to April 2018 of 743 U.S. teens and 1,058 U.S. parents of teens found that 54% of teens spend too much time of their cellphones. As for social media, 41% of these teens think they spend too much time on it. Almost three-quarters of the parents in the study felt that their teen is too directed by their phone to even hold a conversation. Even more shocking is that 56% of teens feel “loneliness, being upset or feeling anxious” when they are not around their phone. These feelings can become so intense that teens can show signs of internet addiction.

Adolescents who develop an addiction to the Internet can be compared to those with an addiction to substances like alcohol and drugs, according to “The Council’s Blog”. The Internet can give off “some of the same dopamine rewards” that effects “the pleasure systems of the brain.” According to Common Sense Media, even though Internet addiction is not listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the addiction still provides “reward stimuli” even though it has negative consequences to it. Social media can also alleviate any stress teens may be having as it is an easy way to fill the “human need for stimulation,” thus making it addictive. The Council’s Blog also explains how a 2017 study at Ben-Gurion University in Israel found that teenagers who were addicted to their phones had “significantly higher scores in depression, anxiety, insomnia severity, and impulsivity.”  In addition, Susie East at “CNN” reports that a study done by UCLA scanned 32 teenager’s brains when using an app that was like Instagram. It found that “certain regions of the brain became activated by ‘likes’, with the brain’s reward center becoming especially active.” This ultimately motivates teens to use social media more. Furthermore, Lauren Sherman, the lead author of the study explains how the reward center is more sensitive in adolescents, which explains why social media is so popular.

More importantly, children who have experienced childhood abuse are more likely to problematically use the internet as a coping mechanism to feel a connection with others.  Common Sense Media defines problematic media use as “dysfunctional ways of engaging with media and encompasses many related terms, including Internet addiction, technology addiction, Internet gaming disorder, and others.” Adolescents who experience this problem feel that their relationship with their phones is “compulsive, obsessive, or unhealthy.” Furthermore, these children who have experienced emotional abuse or physical or emotional neglect are more at risk of developing an insecure attachment or avoidant attachment anxiety. If adolescents experience anxious attachment, Psychiatry Research explains that they will create a “negative image of the self” and will engage in “hyperactivating strategies” to get close to others. These researchers also explain that adolescents could experience avoidant attachment where they develop “a negative image of others and a deactivated attachment system.” This can deprive these kids of developing healthy relationships in their offline lives, thus making them susceptible to develop a problematic internet use that enables them to create a false persona to connect to others. Psychiatry Research states that according to the attachment theory, kids who had abusive relationships with parents aren’t able to form healthy relationships with people in their future. A study done with 1,029 students in North West England showed that out of 327 people who experienced some type of childhood maltreatment, 84% of them developed an insecure attachment that prevented them from forming new relationships because of negative trust issues towards other people. Whether it is anxious attachment where kids have negative self-esteem that results in the inability to create new relationships or avoidant attachment where kids distrust others and are unable to form close relationships, the common result is problematic internet use.

Because adolescents with a background of childhood abuse are more likely to develop problematic internet use, the use of social media as a way to create a new persona of themselves. Springer Science and Business Media explains that adolescents are conflicted with the problems of standing out or fitting in with their peers when forming their own personal identity. Moreover, these adolescents want friendships where they can trust one another wither problems. But how can they do this if they suffer from insecure or avoidant attachment anxiety? This is where social media sites step in to help, as they act as a place where these kids can be anyone they want to develop new friends. Springer Science and Business Media explains that it’s up to them to decide how accurate they “portray their identities online.” According to the hyperpersonal model “adolescents engage in selective self-presentation online.” These adolescents can do whatever they want with their presentations, but with this type of power comes consequences for their actions. If they decide to change their sense of self online for different people, it would be harder to change their sense of sense back in their offline lives. Furthermore, Springer Science and Business Media explain how online self-disclosure is a “rehearsal” for offline self-disclosure. Depending on who the teen’s audience is, they will practice what information they want to reveal about themselves. More importantly, “negative feedback” can lead to lower self-esteem and hinder their development even more.

According to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), if adolescents are false information about themselves, they may experience cyberbullying. The impact of it can be so detrimental to kids that they may experience symptoms like depression and anxiety, and they may even commit suicide if the situation is so severe. It is even reported “that 1 in 4 adolescents report digital ‘drama'” which is more relatable to adolescents than the term cyberbullying. Overall, the kids who spread false information about themselves are not only misleading people, but they can experience more feeling of depression. Again, this leads to lower self-esteem because of the “negative feedback online,” according to the AAP.

Even more is that social media is affecting children’s morals. According to Judith Burns at “BBC News,” in the United Kingdom in 2016, “55% of 1,700 people with children aged 11-17 thought that social media hinders or undermines moral development.” Parents that were surveyed said that while 15% of social media sites had a positive influence on children, 40% of parents said they were worried about social media negatively affecting their children. Even more is that 60% or parents saw that their children were experiencing more anger, 51% saw arrogance, 43% saw ignorance, and 41% saw bad judgment. Social media has been affecting their children’s morals, which overall affects the way they live as a person and what their morals will be in the future as adults.

Adolescents, especially those with some form of social anxiety, become so comfortable in social media that it actually becomes, according to Chapter 2 of the book Cyberpsychology as Everyday Digital Experience across the Lifespan, a “reality of choice.” So comfortable that, in fact, in Japan, the name hikikomori, meaning “pulling inward, being confined” has been given to teens who essentially “live online, never leave home, and remain with their parents.” Social media is a way for these teens to avoid “social situations” so they can live in a “comfortable medium” so that they don’t have to deal with disapproval from others. In addition, Common Sense Media reports that adolescents are experiencing fewer feelings of empathy because of social media as. These teens are failing to learn what empathy is due to the lack of “face-to-face time,” therefore they don’t learn “from human facial and vocal cues.” Kids who suffer from childhood maltreatment may already be suffering from the insecure or avoidant attachment that is so extreme that they may just never leave the internet to talk to others to avoid rejection altogether.

Social media use can become so problematic that it can also affect the relationship between kids and their parents. Common Sense Media did a study in 2016 with 1,240 parents and kids and found that “one out of every two teens feel addicted to their device” and that 59% of parents thought their kids were addicted, and that 66% of parents thought that in general, their teens were spending too much time on their devices. Furthermore, 36% of parents and 32% of teens had daily conflicts with one another about their media use.

Teens tend to be private from their parents as they don’t disclose everything that happens in their lives. The internet is a big factor in their life, and it can help them create their own identity and find out what type of person they want to be. Pamela Wisniewski of the University of Central Florida argues since teens are the ones engaging in social media, they should be the ones to deal with the risks of it. These adolescents are naïve to what they put out on the internet and are still learning how to protect themselves. Wisniewski argues that risk-taking is something that teens should engage in to understand the consequences of their actions online, such as strangers trying to communicate with them or spreading false information about themselves. Making mistakes is a part of growing up, and teens need to learn from their own mistakes to understand the value of privacy. Wisniewski states the adolescent resilience theory shows that teens can still live their lives and be successful despite the hardships they come across online. More importantly, Wisniewski thinks that “Teens are often able to cope and resolve negative online experiences without intervention from their parents.” If they don’t involve their parents, Wisniewski states these adolescents can learn to set boundaries, feel empathy towards others, and resolve arguments.

However, children need a positive parent-child attachment so that they can become more responsible for their online endeavors. Telematics and Informatics have found that “Weak parental-attachment was reported to be a risk factor for children’s risky online activities and internet addiction.” If kids have a strong relationship with their parents, then kids will participate in less “risky online activities.” Parents should then play an active role in their kid’s life to make sure their kids are safe on the internet. A study of 733 adolescents from ages 10 to 18 found that the more kids communicate with their parents, less dangerous online activities occur, such as sending inappropriate messages to others. Without parent involvement, kids can prevent positive growth development if they just try to learn from their own mistakes.

Furthermore, Wisniewski’s thoughts on teens being able to minor themselves can be proven wrong by the improving numbers of parent involvement in children’s online activity. The Department of Media and Communications at The London School of Economics and Political Science found that out of 2,032 parents of children aged 0-17 years old, 49% of parents of kids 9-12 years old “think their child still needs them to check what they do online, and nearly two-thirds think this is their right as a parent.” Since these adolescents may use social media sites that require at least kids to be 13 to have their own account, parents are more aware of what their child posts. Although parents are taking more responsibility for their child’s online actions, why do these kids have social media accounts if they don’t even meet the minimum age requirement? Looking beyond this, the most important thing is that parents are becoming more aware of what their children do online.

Although Wisniewski proposes a “teen-centric” approach to online protection, it would not be as good compared to if parents were involved with their children’s online behavior. Just because teens can pick and choose their friends and self-monitor themselves, does not mean they should. Parents need to communicate with their kids so their attachment with them will become more trustworthy. However, this isn’t possible with kids who were raised by abusive parents. It is important for all kids to be safe online, and it starts with parents monitoring their children’s use. It is time to start taking responsibility for our children’s actions.

Even though adolescents can spread false information about themselves to make themselves more extroverted and appealing to others, social media can actually be a good way to interact with others as long as it’s used appropriately. Common Sense Media suggests that maybe adolescents aren’t as much experiencing an addiction to the Internet as they are just using the internet as a way to “interact with friends in a society that does not allow children as much freedom as earlier generations.” After all, that is the main point of social media; to connect with others. Teens are able to go online to see what their friends are up to and express their own interests, as they can “join Internet ‘groups’ reflecting on the aspects of their identity that they wish to explore or deepen” according to Springer Science and Business Media. They can even connect with others who come from different backgrounds to create deeper connections. However, this can only happen if they are using social media for the right reasons, like not sharing false reformation about themselves for the sense of acceptance. Rather, teens need to be secure wither identity so that they are conformable connecting to others and expressing who they are without fear of rejection.

One may think social media’s main use is to simply connect others, but the bigger picture shows that social media can be harmful for the next generation. Adolescents use social media as a way to escape their hardships in the offline lives, yet essentially create a whole new life as if they are living in a fantasy. This doesn’t change their actual lives though, as they still need to come to terms with what they are dealing with and what type of person they want to be when dealing with their problems. Creating a false identity may seem like a great idea to become whom they want to be, but these adolescents still need to find ways to handle their real-life problems instead of ignoring them. By ignoring their problems, they are just creating a new one by overusing social media.

 

References

Burns, J. (2016, July 18). Social media harms moral development, parents say. Retrieved December 06, 2018, from https://www.bbc.com/news/education-36824176

Chin-Hooi Soh, P., Wai Chew, K., Yeik Koay, K., & Hwa Ang, P. (2017, November 05). Parents vs peers’ influence on teenagers’ Internet addiction and risky online activities. Retrieved December 04, 2018, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0736585317301491

Common Sense Media. (2016, May 03). New Report Finds Teens Feel Addicted to Their Phones, Causing Tension at Home | Common Sense Media. Retrieved December 06, 2018, from https://www.commonsensemedia.org/about-us/news/press-releases/new-report-finds-teens-feel-addicted-to-their-phones-causing-tension-at

East, S. (2016, August 01). How does social media affect your brain. Retrieved November 29, 2018, from https://edition.cnn.com/2016/07/12/health/social-media-brain/

Felt, L., Robb, M., & Gardner, H. (2016). TECHNOLOGY ADDICTION concern, controversy, and finding balance. Retrieved from https://www.commonsensemedia.org/sites/default/files/uploads/research/2016_csm_technology_addiction_executive_summary.pdf

Harley, D., Morgan, J., & Frith, H. (1970, January 01). Growing up Online. Retrieved November 29, 2018, from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/978-1-137-59200-2_2

Jiang, J. (2018, September 14). How Teens and Parents Navigate Screen Time and Device Distractions. Retrieved November 29, 2018, from http://www.pewinternet.org/2018/08/22/how-teens-and-parents-navigate-screen-time-and-device-distractions/

Lester, H. (2018, February 09). Technology Misuse, Abuse, & Addiction Among Teenagers. Retrieved November 29, 2018, from https://www.councilonrecovery.org/technology-misuse-abuse-addiction-among-teenagers/

Livingstone, S., Blum-Ross, A., & Zhang, D. (2018, May). What do parents think, and do, about their children’s online privacy? Retrieved from http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/87954/1/Livingstone_Parenting%20Digital%20Survey%20Report%203_Published.pdf

O’Keeffe, G. S., & Clarke-Pearson, K. (2011, March 29). Clinical Report—The Impact of Social Media on Children, Adolescents, and Families. Retrieved from https://www.cooperativa.cl/noticias/site/artic/20110329/asocfile/20110329173752/reporte_facebook.PDF

Shapiro, L., & Margolin, G. (2013, May 04). Growing Up Wired: Social Networking Sites and Adolescent Psychosocial Development. Retrieved November 29, 2018, from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10567-013-0135-1

Uhls, Y., Ellison, N., & Subrahmanyam, K. (2017, November 01). Benefits and Costs of Social Media in Adolescence. Retrieved November 29, 2018, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/140/Supplement_2/S67

Wisniewski, P. (2018, March). E Privacy Paradox of Adolescent Online Safety: A Matter of Risk Prevention or Risk Resilience? Retrieved November 29, 2018, from https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=8328977&tag=1

Worsley, J. D., McIntyre, J. C., Bentall, R. P., & Corcoran, R. (2018, May 25). Childhood maltreatment and problematic social media use: The role of attachment and depression. Retrieved November 29, 2018, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165178117318668

Visual Rewrite- beachgirl6

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fgBWKSIX2Hc

0:00-0:02

A car is driving down the road very late at night. The sky is pitch black, there are no streetlights, and the only source of light being provided is from the car’s headlights. The view shows the car as if the viewer is on the side of the road watching the car on the right side of the road drive pass them. It seems to be a highway as there are no buildings in sight, just some fields, and trees. The view changes and is shown as if the viewer is standing on the other side of the road, looking at the car driving. The car isn’t driving too fast, but it does feel as if something unexpected is about to happen.

0:03-0:05

There is now a front view of the car driving down the road. It is on a highway, so it is going quite fast. It is still pitch-black outside, with the only light coming from the car’s headlights. All of a sudden, a person from the side of the road appears. The only part of the person visible is their lower body. They start walking onto the road. The gives the viewers some anxiety as the person is probably going to get hit by the car.

The view now changes as if the viewer is in the driver’s seat. There are still no other cars in sight. There is a yellow line with yellow dashes on the road, which means cars can come from both directions. The car’s headlights provide light to show that the human is now in the middle of the road, right in the car’s path. The person is a guy, probably in his older teens, looking down, his arms out in front of him, not realizing there is a car. He is dressed in casual clothes such as a long sleeve shirt, a pair of long pants, and white sneakers. The director most likely chose these clothes to show that the person is just an average guy. The car is still driving quite fast, which is terrifying as it seems they are about to hit the person.

0:06

The view is on the side again, with the guy on the left and the car on the right. The car comes to complete stop so that it doesn’t hit the person. This gives a sense of relief to the audience, as the person did not get run over. He is still looking down while he is walking, and it appears that he is holding something in his hands.

0:07

The view changes to where the guy is the center of attention and the car is in the background with its headlights shining on him. His hands are holding something, and a faint light is coming from whatever he is holding. It is most likely a cellphone, as he is also moving his thumbs, indicating that he is texting. This shows that the director wanted the guy to keep texting, as it seems that on being on the phone is more important than being aware of what is going on.

0:08-0:09

The boy now looks up from his phone and looks at the car. The view is shown from the driver’s perspective now. His hands are still out in front of him holding his phone. He is wearing a brown shirt, a sweatshirt, a leather jacket, and jeans. His facial expressions seem neutral, as he isn’t scared. Perhaps he is confused or shocked why the car is right there in front of him. This is shown to indicate that the guy is supposed to be acting like an animal, as animals have no expressions.

0:10

The view now changes to show the front of the car looking at the driver and passenger. The driver and passenger, however, are deer. They are just staring straight ahead at the guy. This is ironic as people are the drivers and the deer are the most common animals to be hit by cars. The director wanted to show the irony in this by showing that no matter who the driver is, texting will always be a distraction. The lights of the car are still on. The antlers of the deer stick out from the top of the car as if there is a sunroof that is open on the car. The lights inside the car are on as well. Although the deer have no facial expressions, it seems that they are confused as to why the boy is in the middle of the road.

0:11-0:12

The boy is now seen from the driver’s point of view. He is still staring at the car with a blank expression. It is confusing because the boy was about to be hit by the car, but didn’t seem shaken by the incident.

All of a sudden, however, he starts running across the road very fast. The car still isn’t moving. He keeps running until he is on the other side of the road.

0:13-0:16

The view is very up close and personal to the two deer in the car. The deer in the passenger seat turns to look at the deer in the driver’s seat. Both deer start to shake their heads back and forth as they seem annoyed, probably because the boy was texting and didn’t realize where he was or care about the dangers of being hit by a car.

0:17-0:18

The car is now viewed from behind. Three more people come out from the same side of the road where the boy appeared. They are running with their knees are up high, trying to copy some sort of startled animal that is running. There are one boy and two girls, and all three of them are dressed in very casual clothes like the first guy, like jeans, sweatshirts, and sneakers. They also seem like are also 16 or 17 years old. The car on the road is still stopped but turned on, as the brake lights are on. The people are running to the other side of the road where the first guy went. They also all have phones in their hands and are looking down at them while they are running.

0:19-0:20

The frame starts to fade away while the group of people is running to the other side of the road. Text pops us in a white, simple font that reads “Don’t text when on the road.”

Once the people are on the opposite side of the road, the car starts to drive off. The text starts to fade away. The only light that is provided is from the car’s headlights and brake lights, as well as from the phones of the three people.

0:21-0:24

The group of people is now off the road, and the is still driving. It is driving at a slower speed than the beginning of the clip, probably to show that the deer are being more careful in case there are more people that come onto the road. The last thing seen as the scene fades away into a black screen is the car driving away. Text pops up that reads “It’s not safe for deer…” then right after, “or humans.” This is to show that both animals and people can be injured by texting and driving and that the bad action can lead to serious consequences.

0:25-0:30

A black screen appears with the website “stoptextsstopwrecks.org” as well as names of companies that help bring awareness about texting and driving. Besides this text, the other graphic Is yellow dashed lines in the center of a screen, just like yellow dashed lines on a road. They are moving to act as if someone is driving on a road.

Causal Argument- beachgirl6

Consequences of Living a Double Life

 

We are very fortunate to live in an advanced technological era. The adolescents of generation z get to have all the information they want at the tip of their fingertips due to the endless possibilities the internet has to offer. To engage with others, kids now have the opportunity to use social media to not only connect with others, but to create their own identity. However, these kids may take the time to create a false persona of themselves, especially if they use social media as a way to escape their real-world problems. Some of the most vulnerable kids that will create a misleading identity are those who have experienced childhood emotional abuse and physical and emotional neglect.

This type of childhood maltreatment has affected young adults as they grow up. A study done by J. D. Worsley at Psychiatry Research did a study at a university in North West New England. The 1,029 students who participated in the research were random college kids aged 17-25 who found out about this study through their university’s mass email. These students were just like any college kids, coming from different backgrounds and facing different hardships. A survey was using the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale measured if childhood maltreatment caused problematic social media use because of the cause of attachment anxiety (Worsley, 90). A personal health questionnaire was also used that screens for depression. The results came to that 31.8%, which is 327 students, experienced some sort of maltreatment as a kid. Of those 327 students, 84.4%, which is 276 students, had insecure attachment anxiety. Results showed that the insecure attachment and depression symptoms affected problematic social media use.

If these students suffered attachment anxiety, then their fear of trusting others negatively affected the way the form relationships in their real life. Worsley described that social media acted as a place to escape their hardships, as, “People who suffer childhood maltreatment may therefore overuse social media in order to cope with this difficult life experience” (Worsley 92). Without a trusted person they could look up to help cope with their problems as their family was abusing them, these adolescents didn’t develop appropriate coping strategies (Worsley 92). Those who suffered attachment anxiety also used social media to find a sense of belonging as they felt as if they didn’t belong in their own families.

The internet is a part of everyday life for everyone. Specifically, adolescents between the ages of 11 and 18 have spent up to, at the most, 11 hours on digital media (Spies Shapiro 1). This results in daily lives being interrupted by the use of any media and significantly impacts the individual’s development. An important factor in the growth of adolescents is how they define themselves and what people that associate with, meaning how their friends impact their daily lives. These kids are bouncing back and forth between the concepts of trying to conform to others while also trying to express their individuality (Spies Shapiro, 2). Kids are constantly comparing themselves to one another, and the use of social media doesn’t help improve their self-esteem. Spies Shapiro points out that “The hyper personal model for computer-mediated communication, for example, posits that adolescents engage in selective self-presentations online; moreover, the feedback from these presentations may, in turn, alter individuals’ self-perceptions” (Spies Shapiro, 4). Along with this, a research study in 2010 wanted to show how online interactions help self -disclosure rather than face to face interactions (Spies Shapiro, 9). Results showed that when close friends reported on the individual’s personality, the individual’s personality was different from their own report. This study showed that adolescents portrayed a false persona of themselves so they would seem more extroverted (Spies Shapiro, 9). They alter their personalities online to show a different side of themselves.

Adolescents are growing up in a digital world where it can be easier to share their own opinions without fear of judgment in face to face interactions. Social media can be harmful as kids who are already dealing with problems like ADHD or depression can be more predisposed to dealing with internet addiction, which is similar to substance abuse (Spies Shapiro, 3). However, if kids are suffering from social anxiety, social media acts as a way to express their feelings without having to deal with face to face conversations, and they “may start to prefer the multiplicity of the virtual world as their ‘reality of choice’.” (Harley, 36). This makes sense as texting has become the preferred mode of communication between others as adolescents can create a false persona of themselves as a way to be more extroverted. Social media networks helps to create one’s identity as kids will constantly post pictures and fit in with different social groups or cliques to conform to others, as the “power of likes” controls their mindset (Harley, 36).

One may think social media’s main use is to simply connect others, but the bigger picture shows that social media can be harmful for the next generation. Adolescents use social media as a way to escape their hardships in the offline lives, yet essentially create a whole new life as if they are living in a fantasy. This doesn’t change their actual lives though, as they still need to come to terms with what they are dealing with and what type of person they want to be when dealing with their problems. Creating a false identity may seem like great idea to become who they want to be, but these adolescents still need to come to terms with their offline lives, and that their problematic social media use affects them. By ignoring their problems, they are just creating a new one by overusing social media.

 

References

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165178117318668

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10567-013-0135-1

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/978-1-137-59200-2_2