- Goodman, S. (2009, July 09). Fewer Regulations for Bottled Water Than Tap, GAO Says. Retrieved from https://archive.nytimes.com/www.nytimes.com/gwire/2009/07/09/09greenwire-fewer-regulations-for-bottled-water-than-tap-g-33331.html
Background: This New York Times article written by Sara Goodman discusses a statement given by John Stephenson, the Director of Natural Resources and Environment for the Government Accountability Office, in a testimony before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Committee on Energy and Commerce, and the House of Representatives. She clarifies the roles the EPA and FDA play when it comes to ensuring the safety of tap and bottled water.
How I Used It: This article informed me that the EPA regulates tap water and the FDA regulates bottled water. It also made me aware of the fact that the FDA lacks the regulatory authority of the EPA. I was able to use this information to expose that bottled water is not required to be safer than tap water because of gaps in federal oversight authority. The article also touches on the subject of a chemical known as DEHP which is used in the production of plastic bottles. The mention of this chemical inspired me to research its effect on our health.
2. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. (n.d.). Consumers – FDA Regulates the Safety of Bottled Water Beverages Including Flavored Water and Nutrient-Added Water Beverages. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/consumers/ucm046894.htm
Background: This article was published by the FDA and does not list a specific author. It lists good manufacturing practices required specifically for bottled water. It also indicates which products are considered bottled water based on their label.
How I Used It: This article did not provide me with any information in support of my claims or in rebuttal of them. It was useful in providing background information and specific classifications of bottled water types.
3. Huerta-Saenz, L., Irigoyen, M., Benavides, J., & Mendoza, M. (2011, June 04). Tap or Bottled Water: Drinking Preferences Among Urban Minority Children and Adolescents. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10900-011-9415-1
Background: This research study focuses on drinking water preferences among urban minority children and adolescents. While doing so, it provides valuable information about fluoride added to tap water, the cost of drinking bottled water, and the effects of DEHP on children. It also touches on the negative impact bottled water has on the environment and that bottled water is a billion dollar industry. The study also comes to the conclusion that bottled water is the preferred choice of drinking water by all age groups in the low income urban city they surveyed. This is because bottled water was perceived to be of higher quality and felt to have a better taste.
How I Used It: Although I was unable to incorporate the information about the correlation of ethnicity and drinking water preferences, I was able to utilize other valuable information this study provided. It informed me that the addition of fluoride to tap water helps prevent tooth decay in children while the absence of fluoride in bottled water can potentially promote tooth decay. The study really gave me knowledge on the harmful effects of a commonly used plasticizer called DEHP that is used to create plastic water bottles. This study informed me that DEHP causes endocrine and developmental problems in growing children. This study also gave me insight to look into the way bottled water is perceived by consumers and advertising techniques used by bottled water brands.
Background: This article was written by Andrew Postman, a member of the Natural Resources Defense Council, and was published on their website. This article discusses clever marketing techniques used by bottled water companies to promote sales. It also goes over how water is regulated and how tap water is held at a higher standard compared to bottled water. Additionally, Postman discusses the effects of phthalates such as DEHP used to create plastic bottles.
How I Used It: I was able to use the information from this article to gain more knowledge of advertising tactics used by bottled water brands. They sell the image of “pure and natural” water that many consumers buy. This article provided me with evidence crucial to supporting the claims of negative effects of DEHP and the lack of any limits of use set by the FDA.
5. Office of the Commissioner. (2010, June 28). Consumer Updates – Bottled Water Everywhere: Keeping it Safe. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm203620.htm
Background: This article outlines the regulations that focus on bottled water according to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. This act makes the manufacturers of bottled water responsible for producing safe, wholesome, and truthfully labeled food products. It also goes into in depth explanations of the different classifications of bottled water.
How I Used It: Most of this article provided background knowledge or went over information I had already gained from other sources.
6. Office, U. G., & Stephenson, J. (2009, July 07). Bottled Water: FDA Safety and Consumer Protections Are Often Less Stringent Than Comparable EPA Protections for Tap Water. Retrieved from https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-09-610
Background: This is the actual statement given by John Stephenson, the Director of Natural Resources and Environment for the Government Accountability Office, in his testimony before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Committee on Energy and Commerce, and the House of Representatives. He discusses the quality and safety of bottled water along with its environmental impacts. Stephenson reports the extent to which federal and state authorities regulate bottled water to ensure its safety, extent to which federal and state authorities regulate the accuracy of labels or claims regarding the source and purity of bottled water, and the environmental impacts of bottled water.
How I Used It: This statement provided me with the knowledge that the FDA does not have specific statutory authority over bottled water companies to require them to use certified water testing laboratories for water quality reports. It also informed me that the FDA does not have the authority to require bottled water companies to notify the FDA when there is a contamination issue with their water. Stephenson made me aware of how little information is provided on the labels of water bottles and that water bottle companies are not required to divulge any information about their water to consumers unless they choose to do so.
Background: This article was published by the EPA and provides information about tap water. Specifically, it discusses whether or not we should have our water tested, how frequently our water needs to be tested, and the specific elements to test our water for.
How I Used It: I used the information from this article to provide facts about proper precautions to take when it comes to the use of private wells for drinking water.
[This is the first flaw I have found in an exemplary Annotated Bibliography, BeezKneez. It identifies a topic (what precautions to take) instead of claims (“It suggests boiling well water to eliminate common bacteria.”) —DSH]
8. Agency, E. P. (2005). Home water treatment facts pg – US EPA. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-11/documents/2005_11_17_faq_fs_healthseries_filtration.pdf
Background: This article was also published by the EPA to provide detailed information to consumers on various home water filtration systems. It encourages home owners to inquire about the contents of their tap water by asking their water supplier for their annual water quality report.
How I Used It: This article was useful in providing background knowledge about tap water. It also provided me with more detailed information about home water filtration systems when discussing how to properly care for our homes’ tap water.
[And this is the second, for the same reason. But it comes after more than enough impressive entries to make me not care. —DSH]
9. Bullers, A. C. (n.d.). Bottled Water: Better Than the Tap? Retrieved from http://webprojects.oit.ncsu.edu/project/bio183de/Black/chemreview/chemreview_news/402_h2o.html
Background: This article was written by Anne Christiansen Bullers and published on the FDA consumers magazine website. It provides reasons why bottled water is safer for consumption compared to tap water.
How I Used It: I was able to use this information in my rebuttal argument to provide an opposing viewpoint to my thesis that tap water is safer for consumption compared to bottled water. This source provided me with information to cite and then disprove in favor of my thesis.
[What was that infomation? —DSH]
10. Flint Water Crisis Fast Facts. (2018, April 09). Retrieved from https://www.cnn.com/2016/03/04/us/flint-water-crisis-fast-facts/index.html
Background: This website provided facts about the Flint Michigan Water Crisis and supplied a timeline of events prior to the news coverage of the crisis and after the story hit the news.
How I Used It: I was able to use this information in my causal argument when discussing publicized issues with tap water in contrast to the lack of information available about bottled water.
[You mean: I used the fact that bad news about Flint’s water became public knowledge while WE STILL DON’T KNOW the bad news about bottled water. —DSH]