- Guskiewicz, K. M., & ATC. (2003, November 19). Cumulative Effects Associated With Recurrent Concussion in Collegiate Football Players. Retrieved from https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/197667
Background: This article estimates the number of players who are likely to sustain another concussion after already being diagnosed with one. An estimated 300,000 sport related concussions occur annually in the United States and with repeated head injury among players the likelihood of serious head injury in the future will only increase. 2,905 football players from 25 U.S colleges were tested for three consecutive years, followed up for repeat concussions until the end of the third year.
How I plan to use it: I plan to use this source as an example to prove my thesis as well as compare these studies to what can continue occurring to players in the U.S. I believe this number will continue increasing.
- Concussions: How They Can Affect You Now and Later . (n.d.). Retrieved from https://healthcare.utah.edu/healthfeed/postings/2016/11/concussion.php
Background: This article explains what a concussion is. It explains the short-term and long-term effects of a concussion and what it may do to someone with repetitive incidents.
How I plan to use it: I plan to use this source to provide my readers with the knowledge of a concussion.
- Rowson, S., & Duma, S. M. (2011, May 07). Development of the STAR Evaluation System for Football Helmets: Integrating Player Head Impact Exposure and Risk of Concussion. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10439-011-0322-5
Background: This article explains the development of a self-evaluating system for football helmets. This system will integrate player head impact exposure and the risk of a concussion.
How I plan to use it: I plan to use this source as an example to stress that head injury is to be taken seriously. With technology evolving, scientists are trying to find a way to prevent concussions because the risk of permanent head injury. Equipment over the years has improved but concussions are still occurring.
- Traumatic Brain Injury – Football, Warfare, and Long-Term Effects | NEJM. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmp1007051
Background: This article tries to bring awareness to NFL players about traumatic brain injury and the long-term effects it can have on players.
How I plan to use it: I plan to use this source to explain that the public is well aware of these injuries and what it can do to someone. Traumatic brain injury can change a person’s whole persona for life no matter the equipment.
- Olson, Grossberg, & T., G. (2016, March 01). ‘We Need to Protect the Brain’: Addressing the Growing Problem of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy. Retrieved from https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-447930732/we-need-to-protect-the-brain-addressing-the-growing
Background: This article explains that most the time concussions are almost motivated because players don’t want to let their teams down or look bad. It explains diseases that can come with having a concussion and stages to expect. Players are aware of what the game can bring.
How I plan to use it: I plan to this source to gather information on the diseases that repetitive head injury can bring and the stages to expect.
- Guskiewicz, M., K., Marshall, W., S., Bailes, Julian, . . . D., B. (2005, October 01). Association between Recurrent Concussion and Late-Life Cognitive Impairment in Retired Professional Football Players. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/neurosurgery/article-abstract/57/4/719/3775312?redirectedFrom=fulltext
Background: This article explains an investigation in association between previous head injury and the likelihood of developing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as well as Alzheimer’s Disease within a group of retired professional football players with previous head injury exposure. A questionnaire was completed by 2,552 retired professional football players.
How I plan to use it: I plan to use this study to explain the long-term effects of playing professional football, while not having the equipment players have today. Players today are stull sustaining serious head injury.
- Schwarz, A. (2009, December 03). N.F.L. Issues New Guidelines on Concussions. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/03/sports/football/03concussion.html
Background: This article explains an announcement by the NFL that it would impose its most stringent rules to managing concussions, requiring players who show any sign of concussion to be removed for the rest of the game.
How I plan to use it: I plan on using this article to expose but at the same time show that the NFL is trying to prevent head injuries and no longer letting players return with symptoms.
- Collins, M. W. (1999, September 08). Relationship Between Concussion and Neuropsychological Performance in College Football Players. Retrieved from https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/191533
Background: This article shows a study with 393 athletes from 4 university football programs across the United States. All players received preseason baseline evaluations between May 1997 and February 1999. Subjects who had subsequent football-related acute concussions underwent neuropsychological comparison with matched control athletes from within the sample. This study is similar to Guskiewicz’s but with less players.
How I plan to use: I plan to use this study as an example to prove my thesis. I’d also like to compare these studies to what can continue occurring to players if the prevention of head injury isn’t taken serious.
- Incidence of Sports-Related Concussion among Youth Football Players Aged 8-12 Years. (2013, June 14). Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022347613004289
Background: This article shows a study amongst youth football plyers aged 8-12. 468 youth football players in Pennsylvania during the 2011 season. Incidence rates and incidence density ratios of concussion were calculated for games as well as practices. All recordings were separated by age group.
How I plan to use it: I plan to use this article to prove that concussions occur to players while they’re young. Building all the head impact from youth to a college level can also cause long-term effects. No matter what equipment we use concussions will continue to occur because head impact will always occur. It is part of the game of Football.
- Comparison of Mouth Guard Designs and Concussion Prevention … : Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. (2005, April/May). Retrieved from https://journals.lww.com/cjsportsmed/Abstract/2005/09000/Comparison_of_Mouth_Guard_Designs_and_Concussion.3.aspx
Background: This article tries to explain the comparison of mouth guard design and concussion prevention in contact sports.
How I plan to use it: I plan to use this article to continue proving my thesis. No matter what technology is designed to prevent head impact or put our body in a position to take impact, the impact can still cause injury to the head.