Enough About You- Flowers3399

Money seems to have a big role in our society; you can’t do much or get far if you don’t have any. Money is valuable in different ways, even when you don’t see it physically. In today’s society you must have faith in the government and in the banking system that your money is being handled in the proper manner; if not, then you would have to hide all of your money under your mattress or around your house. I have no clue what happens in the banks, or how they take care of your money. I always thought money was simple; you either have some or you don’t—that’s it. However, being introduced to this assignment, the Yap Fei, US gold, French francs, Brazilian cruzeros, and debit accounts now seem similar. You don’t actually see your money being transferred. When you get paid, you aren’t handed cash, you don’t receive a physical check, the money’s all directly transferred to your bank account, and you just have to trust that you got more money.

Revised Version

Money seems to have a big role in our society; we can’t do much or get far if we don’t have any. Money is valuable in different ways, even if it can’t be seen physically. In today’s society we put trust in the government and banking system to handle our money in the proper manner; if not, we would begin to hide our money under mattresses or around the house. The banks don’t explain what they do or how they take care of the money. The concept of money was always simple; we either have some or we don’t– that’s it. However, being introduced to this assignment, the Yap Fei, US gold, French francs, Brazilian cruzeros, and debit accounts all seem similar. People don’t see their money being transferred. When payday comes around, workers aren’t handed cash, they receive a check, and the money gets transferred into their bank account, and they have to trust it went through.  

Rebuttal- Flowers3399

Using pharmaceuticals to help reduce anxiety instead of weed can have the same disadvantages as using weed. The downsides can make it more confusing on whether to take the medications or not. The medicine is helping reduce the anxiety, however, the user is getting addicted to it at the same time. The side effects that come along with taking the medication can outweigh the helpfulness. Pharmaceuticals could cause health issues and lead to overdosing on the drug. Taking anxiety medication could create more problems rather than help any.

Anxiety reducing medications can be extremely helpful but can have a variety of downfalls as well. One of the downfalls is the risk of addiction. The medications are reducing anxiety but at the same time, the user is becoming more and more addicted to it. Anxiety medicine can easily become an addiction because of high the potency is. As the person suffering from anxiety takes the medicine it begins to build up in the body. This then causes the user’s body to become dependent on the medication in a physical and mental way. Most people do not realize that they are getting addicted and cannot always see the signs. In the article, “Understanding Benzodiazepines,” the author states: “…high abusive and addictive potential they hold… developing a tolerance to the drugs’ sedative effects or dismissing important people and activities to focus solely on getting and abusing the drugs.” The article discusses how most users do not realize they are building up a tolerance to the drug and just overriding the fact that it is supposed to help reduce their anxiety. Building up their tolerance can lead to needing a bigger dosage just to help reduce anxiety. Having an addiction to pharmaceuticals could lead to the users missing out on events and activities all because they constantly crave the drug. If the user begins to become addicted and tries to stop taking the drug they can begin to go through a withdrawal which could become harmful. Anxiety medications can cause more harm than good to the user and their families.

Sometimes the many side effects of medication can outweigh the purpose of the drug. Anxiety medication has a collection of side effects that could make it seem like there is no point in taking it. Some of those side effects are drowsiness, headaches, insomnia, tremors, and can lower blood pressure. A more worrisome side effect is the possibility of depression being worsened while on anti-anxiety medications. In the article “Anxiety Medication,” the author states: “…can worsen cases of pre‐existing depression… may potentially lead to treatment-resistant depression… can cause emotional blunting or numbness and increase suicidal thoughts and feelings.” The article talks about the possibility of the medications worsening depression if the user suffers from it. Depression being heightened can lead to the user having suicidal thoughts. Although the medications are reducing anxiety they are heightening depression in some users. Depression being worsened can lead to more suffering on top of the suffering that is happening from anxiety. The suffering of anxiety can be heightened as well because it is one of the symptoms of depression. The side effects for the medications can make it hard to want to take the drugs in the first place.

Anxiety medications can bring about health issues and cause more problems. Users can begin to have lower blood pressure, upset stomach, respiration issues, confusion, and memory loss. These health issues can make it harder to do daily activities. They can also worsen anxiety in a way because the user could start to become worried about their health issues which then leads to more anxiety. Health issues just like the side effects can make taking the medication undesirable.  

Another downside to medications is the possibility of abuse which would result in overdosing. Abusing the drug can lead to an alcohol like buzz or a high which some people find enjoyable or relaxing. Constantly wanting to feel like this could result in an overdose of the drug. In the article, “More Overdose Deaths From Anxiety,” author Rabin states: “Meanwhile, the rate of overdose deaths involving anti-anxiety drugs reached 3.07 per 100,000 adults in 2013.” The article discusses how anxiety medication users are starting to overdose on the drug more often. Becoming dependent on the medications are also abusing it because the user is building up their tolerance which would lead to needing bigger dosages. Most of the time the user does not even need the drug anymore but have begun to enjoy the “buzz” it leaves. Mixing anxiety medicines with alcohol or other medications can lead to overdoses as well. Abuse and overdosing are just some of the factors to consider while taking anxiety medications.

Anxiety medications do help reduce anxiety and have advantages. They also have their fair share of disadvantages. Those being addiction, negative side effects, health issues, and the possibility of abuse and overdosing. All of these disadvantages can cloud the advantages and make it hard to decide whether or not to take anxiety medications.


“Prescription Anxiety Medication Addiction – Benzodiazepine Abuse.” AddictionCenter, www.addictioncenter.com/benzodiazepines/.

“Anxiety Medication.” Anxiety Medication: What You Need to Know About Benzodiazepines & Other Anxiety Drugs, www.helpguide.org/articles/anxiety/anxiety-medication.htm.

Rabin, Roni Caryn. “More Overdose Deaths From Anxiety Drugs.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 25 Feb. 2016, well.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/02/25/more-overdose-deaths-from-anxiety-drugs/.




Robust Verbs- Flowers3399


There is a huge problem in Vancouver with heroin addicts committing crimes to support their habits. The “free heroin for addicts” program is doing everything they can to stop the addicts. The problem is that there is a large crime rate due to the addicts. It is obvious that addicts have a hard time getting through their day to day lives. Daily activities such as jobs, interactions, and relationships are hard to maintain because of the fact that they are using. By heroin users being addicted, they will do whatever they have to do to get their hands on the drug. The types of crimes committed are those of breaking and entering as well as stealing. There are no limits to where they will go to retrieve this drug so that they can feed their addiction. The problem with this program is that it won’t help to ween these addicts off using heroin. It is only trying to save the city from rising crime rates that they’re up to. By providing the drug, these addicts will be off the streets, which in turn will prevent them from committing minor street crimes. This will also keep the heroin users out of the hospital. It is pointless that the hospitals have to deal with people that want to use bad drugs or unsanitary needles and find themselves being unable to afford hospital bills and hard to cope without the drug. This program gives people free heroin in the cleanest way possible. This will in turn fix the city  but not the addiction that these people face.

New Paragraph:

In Vancouver, heroin addicts are robbing and breaking and entering to support their habits. Not only are they committing crimes but they are taking up hospital space and time. Their addiction doesn’t allow them to do daily activities. The “free heroin for addicts” program is supplying needles and the drug in the cleanest way possible. The program does not cure the addiction but it is reducing the crime rate and freeing up hospital time.

Causal Argument- Flowers3399

Pharmaceuticals and Anxiety

Mental illnesses can have an impact on the lives of those who suffer from it. The illnesses can make it hard to do the simplest of things. One of the many mental illnesses that people can suffer from is anxiety. Those with anxiety tend to have a feeling of unease and nervousness about certain events like presentations, relationships, jobs, school, and so on. Having anxiety can make it hard to do the events just listed and even just daily activities. However, there are ways to reduce anxiety and some of those ways are therapy or pharmaceuticals. An unconventional way is smoking weed however, pharmaceuticals are more effective at reducing anxiety.

There are different forms of anxiety but the most common is generalized anxiety. This can be caused by stress or a traumatic event and it sometimes can be genetic. Having anxiety can cause those with it to feel overwhelmed among other things. In the article Causes and Effects of anxiety, it states: “He or she fears the worst outcome in every situation, even if it is illogical… person may even admit or know logically that such fears are irrational, he or she will be unable to stop the persistent worry.” Those who suffer from anxiety experience what is stated above. The constant worrying can cause difficulties in their everyday lives. The effects of suffering from anxiety are difficulty sleeping, trouble interacting with others, no motivation, and disruption in other daily activities. Those who suffer from it can find ways to better cope or even reduce it.

Marijuana is used by many people. It can be smoked, an edible, or can even be a supplement. Prescriptions for weed can be filled out for medical reasons but for the most part, it is smoked recreationally. Some people with anxiety smoke weed to get high because the high is what helps reduces it. However, smoking marijuana does not help reduce anxiety. Smoking it, in fact, can cause more anxiety instead of reducing it. This can happen if it is smoked in high doses. In the article, “Marijuana and Anxiety | Does Marijuana Help Anxiety or Cause it?”, it says “… marijuana can bring symptoms of anxiety or can heighten their existing anxiety.” For some, it can even bring about anxiety. There are long-term effects that come along with smoking it. Some of those effects are heightened anxiety, short-term memory, and paranoia. It is possible to build up a tolerance to weed thus, resulting in lack of reducing anxiety. When it comes down to it marijuana does not help reduce anxiety instead it causes or heightens it.

Pharmaceuticals can be used to help those who are suffering from anxiety. They are a more effective way of reducing and relieving it. There are more positive effects of using pharmaceuticals rather than weed. There are many medications that can help with anxiety and the most common are Benzodiazepines. Benzodiazepines have many different types of medication that can help with anxiety. The cause of using Benzos is to reduce anxiety and to be able to daily activities with more ease. Using these medicines can significantly help relieve anxiety. In the article “Benzodiazepines(BZs),” the author states: “Studies suggest that they are effective in reducing symptoms of anxiety in approximately 70-80% of patients.” These medications have helped more people compared to marijuana. Those who use these medications do not tend to build a tolerance to them, therefore, making it more reliable in helping with anxiety. Pharmaceuticals are more effective at reducing anxiety rather than smoking marijuana.

Marijuana is not necessarily the way to go when reducing and relieving anxiety. When it comes down to it pharmaceuticals are more effective for helping those suffering with it. The medications are more reliable in reducing and relieving anxiety. Having anxiety can make it hard to do daily activities and cause those with it to be worried during situation and events. By taking pharmaceuticals it can help reduce the feeling of being worried and can make it easier to do everyday events.


“Anxiety Causes & Effects | Covington Behavioral Health Hospital.” Covington, www.covingtonbh.com/anxiety/signs-symptoms/.

Bowden, Ellie. “Marijuana and Anxiety | Does Marijuana Help Anxiety or Cause It?” The Recovery Village, 17 Oct. 2017, www.therecoveryvillage.com/marijuana-addiction/marijuana-anxiety-marijuana-help-anxiety-cause/#gref.

“Benzodiazepines (BZs).” Anxieties.com, www.anxieties.com/157/benzodiazepines-bzs#.W9EljRNKhAY.


Causal- Flowers3399

Hi Professor Hodges, I could use some help getting my causal argument started. I am researching how the use of smoking weed that provides the high can help reduce anxiety for those who suffer from it and how that can eliminate pharmaceuticals altogether. I am not sure if I should just focus on smoking weed for reducing anxiety and not worry so much about pharmaceuticals. I know that I want to write about smoking weed for anxiety and the effect it has on reducing it. Also, I am worried that I won’t have enough evidence for weed and its relation to anxiety since there aren’t many experiments to help support this.

Definition- Flowers3399

There are many mental health disorders that can affect everyday life for people. One mental health disorder is anxiety. Anxiety can happen at any time and can make it hard to do daily activities. There are ways to treat and find relief from the suffering. With the use of smoking weed those who suffer from anxiety could receive the same relief as they do with pharmaceuticals.

Over the years pharmaceuticals have become held at a high standard for effectiveness when relieving suffering. However, medications side effects can sometimes cloud the effectiveness. Pharmaceuticals are used a great amount when helping with anxiety. Some of the medications can cause more harm than good when it comes to finding relief from anxiety. Over time the medicine can have negative long-term effects. According to the article, “What You Need to Know About Anxiety Medication: Pros and Cons,” the cons of using anxiety medicine are as followed: “Highly addictive when used for long-term treatment, dangerous withdrawal symptoms such as seizures, anxiety, physical cravings, long-term use can hamper brain function.” Anxiety medications can be more harmful than helpful. Pharmaceuticals are not the only treatment that can be used for relief from anxiety.  

Marijuana can be used in different ways and for different reasons. When it comes to relieving anxiety it can be just as effective as pharmaceuticals. Smoking marijuana allows for the body to become relaxed. For it to be effective in relieving anxiety there has to be a limit to how much you smoke. In an experiment done by scientists, they came to the conclusion on what strands and how much is the most effective for helping with anxiety. In the article, “Scientific Guidelines for using Cannabis to Treat Stress, Anxiety and Depression,” the author states: “two puffs of any type of cannabis was sufficient to reduce symptoms of anxiety.” There is a limit on how much to smoke for the THC is to be effective in helping with anxiety. Marijuana is another effective treatment that can help relieve those suffering from anxiety.         

Pharmaceuticals and marijuana could both be seen as an effective way to help those suffering from anxiety. However, one is more effective than the other. Pharmaceuticals can tend to be more expensive than marijuana. Taking medications for a long period of time can eventually lead to addiction because the body will develop a tolerance. This would have a negative effect on relieving anxiety. The article “What You Need to Know About Anxiety Medication: Pros and Cons” explains what happens when one becomes addicted to anxiety medicine: “This can result in panic attacks, tremors, headaches, insomnia, sweating, and ironically, increased anxiety.” The medication can wine up causing more anxiety instead of helping with it. Withdrawal from the medicine can also have an effect on helping with anxiety. Marijuana would be a better treatment for those suffering from anxiety.  

Overall, there are many treatments to help relieve anxiety. Those treatments being pharmaceuticals, therapy, marijuana, and etc. The most effective treatment would be marijuana. Smoking marijuana can help reduce anxiety just as effective as pharmaceuticals. However, marijuana is not a cure for reducing anxiety, in fact, there is no cure when it comes to helping those with anxiety. Since marijuana is just as effective as pharmaceuticals it could become the main way to help reduce anxiety. Which in the end would allow for pharmaceuticals to not be held at such a high standard and could eventually lead to them not being needed at all.


Author, Guest. What You Need to Know About Anxiety Medication: Pros and Cons. 21 May 2018, http://www.rtor.org/2018/05/22/anxiety-medication-pros-and-cons/.

Scientific Guidelines for Using Cannabis to Treat Stress, Anxiety and Depression.” ScienceDaily, ScienceDaily, 19 Apr. 2018, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/04/180419100110.htm.

Definition Argument- misterfries19

If you watch Fox News or CNN, you might get the idea that, at this moment in time, humans really suck at solving problems. But in actuality, we are as pragmatic as we ever have been. Or, at least as hopeful, or willing to experiment. A good example of this instinctual quality can be shown through how humans deal with sickness, injury, or pain. Nowadays, if we have a headache, we can take an Aspirin. If we break an arm, we can have a cast put on that will mold it so that it heals the way it was meant to heal. These discoveries and antidotes come as a product of thousands of years of guessing and checking; studying and discovering what we have at our disposal to solve our problems.

The earliest known records of medicine can date back to the Old Testament, or before. There is no known paper origin of medicine, but humans have been known to experiment with herbs and spices as remedies for different problems for thousands of years. Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary defines Medicine as “a substance or preparation used in treating disease”. By the transitive property, we can assume that for something to be “medicinal”, there must be a disease at hand to fight.

But what is a disease? Words like Influenza, Polio, and Parkinson’s come to mind. Crippling illnesses associated with a weakened body. To treat or cure these diseases, medicine in the form of an injection, pill, or physical therapy can be applied to the situation. A disease can be defined as “a condition of the living animal or plant body or of one of its parts that impairs normal functioning and is typically manifested by distinguishing signs and symptoms”. By this definition, something can be called medicinal if it is a substance or preparation used to fight any symptoms or signs that may show that something in the body is not functioning properly.

Like stated earlier, Doctors may suggest to a patient the use of Aspirin or Motrin to deal with a headache. A headache should require no definition, but in my own words, it is physical pain in the head. So, what about psychiatric diseases and mental illnesses, such as PTSD or Anxiety? In a 2012 report by U.S. Medicine, it was recorded that 141,000 Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans were diagnosed with noncancer pain. 32% of them were diagnosed with PTSD. Of the 141,000, 11.7% were prescribed Opioids to deal with the pain. Among the pool of the 32% diagnosed with PTSD, 17.8% of the Veterans were prescribed opioids. In this instance, the PTSD, although considered mostly psychological and not physical, was categorized as a disease, because a substance was prescribed to treat the impairments it may bring on.

So, Medicine can be used not only to treat physical ailments, but mental ailments as well. Now, the definition of Medicine defines it as a “substance or preparation”. Having focused on the substance, let us look at what a preparation implies. Alternative ways of healing other than ingesting a substance include things such as therapy, acupuncture, and meditation. In a 2014 article published by Julie Corliss of Harvard Health Publishing, the results of an extensive study conducted by John’s Hopkins Medical School could show a possible link between Meditation and a decrease in Anxiety. 19,000 meditation studies were sifted through until 47 unbiased studies could be evaluated for effectiveness by the school. The results of the 47 different studies showed that Meditation, although not a substance of any kind, can be used to lessen anxiety. This would indicate that Meditation is a form of medicine.

Meditation is a practice that requires nothing but the mind and a desire to focus. Nothing must be ingested, and nobody is performing any kind of ritual or surgery on you. So, if Meditation, which simply includes doing nothing but thinking and breathing, can be considered medicinal, then what other preparations can be considered Medicinal? The APA (American Psychological Association) published a report in 2013 on the psychological effects of Music. In the article, a meta-analysis conducted by Dr. Daniel J. Levitin and Dr. Mona Lisa Chanda of McGill University in Montreal focused on 400 studies involving music and it’s health effects. The studies showed that Music can actually improve the body’s immune system and decrease stress. The same study showed that in patients preparing for a surgery, Music was more effective than prescription drugs at relieving stress.

As shown above, the APA endorses the use of Music when treating psychological illnesses or conditions such as Anxiety and Depression. If these psychological conditions or illnesses cause impairments to the body or parts of the body that can be identified through signs or symptoms, then these psychological illnesses can be defined as being diseases. In conclusion, if these psychological illnesses or conditions can be defined as diseases, and if Music is endorsed as a helpful remedy that combats said diseases, then we can define Music as a form of Medicine, because it is a practice that helps fight disease.



Corliss, Julie. “Mindfulness Meditation May Ease Anxiety, Mental Stress.” Harvard Health Blog, Harvard Medical School, 3 Oct. 2017, http://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/mindfulness-meditation-may-ease-anxiety-mental-stress-201401086967.

Novetney, Amy. Monitor on Psychology, American Psychological Association, Nov. 2013, http://www.apa.org/monitor/2013/11/music.aspx.

usmedicine.com. “More Opioid Prescriptions Adverse Effects for Vets With PTSD.” U.S. Medicine, U.S. Medicine, 21 Apr. 2015, http://www.usmedicine.com/agencies/department-of-veterans-affairs/more-opioid-prescriptions-adverse-effects-for-vets-with-ptsd/.

“Medicine.” Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/medicine.

“Disease.” Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/disease.