1) Board, Editorial. “Chicago’s Great Shame, Chicago’s Crisis: Blood on the Streets.” Chicago Tribune, Chicago Tribune, 7 Aug. 2018, http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/opinion/editorials/ct-edit-violence-chicago-gangs-police-20180806-story.html.
Content: The article by the Chicago Tribune describes the gang violence and the high number of shootings there are in the summer of 2018. It mentions multiple shootings that have occurred and calling the streets a “war zone.” There are quotes from the Chicago Police chief of patrol and Superintendent of why this violence goes on and ways to slow it down.
How it was used: This source was used to to describe the gang violence in Chicago and the quote describing the gang violence from Chicago Police chief of patrol was also used.
2) “Crime Statistics.” Chicago Police Department, home.chicagopolice.org/online-services/crime-statistics/.
Content: This source displays all the crime statistics for the City of Chicago. When on “city wide statistics”, it shows the recent crime statistics, but also shows the history of past years crime stats for all types of violent crime, all the way back to 2014.
How it was used: This source was used to show the number of murders in Chicago in 2017.
3) Downen, Robert. “Houston Murders Drop 11 Percent in 2017.” HoustonChronicle.com, Houston Chronicle, 8 Jan. 2018, http://www.houstonchronicle.com/news/houston-texas/houston/article/Houston-murders-drop-11-percent-in-2017-12477945.php.
Content: In this article, it describes how the number of murders in Houston have dropped in 2017, but only by 11 percent. They interview the Houston Police Chief on how the Police attempt to lower the number of homicides. The article also states that there are still the same problems with violence in the city, and that the violent crime rate has increased.
How it was used: This article was used for the number of homicides that occurred in Houston in 2017.
4) Fieldstadt, Elisha. “Gun Ownership by State.” CBS News, CBS Interactive, 16 Feb. 2018, http://www.cbsnews.com/pictures/gun-ownership-rates-by-state/.
5) “Firearm Violence, 1993-2011.” Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?iid=4616&ty=pbdetail.
Content: The study from the Bureau of Justice Statistics reveals firearm violence statistics gathered from 1993-2011. It displays nonfatal firearm victimizations, criminal firearm violence, percent of violence involving a firearm, by type of crime and by type of firearm. It also describes the fatal and nonfatal firearm violence by gender, race, region population, and location.
How it was used: This source was used to show the statistics on fatal firearm violence between genders, and race.
6) “Giffords Law Center’s Annual Gun Law Scorecard.” Giffords Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence, lawcenter.giffords.org/scorecard/#rankings.
Content: The source has its own grading system on each state’s gun laws. An A-F grading scale is applied to every state based on how tough their gun laws are, which include, background checks, child access prevention, concealed carry permitting, domestic violence, extreme risk prevention order, and military-style weapon.
How it was used: This source is used for their grading of Illinois’ and Texas’ gun laws, in which it graded them, a B+ for Illinois, and a F for Texas.
7) Gius, Mark. “The Effect of Gun Ownership Rates on Homicide Rates: A State-Level Analysis.” Applied Economics Letters, vol. 16, no. 17, 2009, pp. 1687-1690.
Content: This study analyzes state-wide gun ownership data from 2001, 2002, and 2004, and compared it to the homicide rates. The author concluded that there is a positive correlation of gun ownership rates and homicide rates.
How I used it: I used this source for my rebuttal argument. The data for gun ownership rates and homicide rates for Texas and Illinois does not agree with Gius’ conclusion that a higher gun ownership rate means a increased homicide rate.
8) “Hidden America: Don’t Shoot I Want to Grow Up.” ABC News, ABC News Network, abcnews.go.com/Nightline/fullpage/chicago-gang-violence-numbers-17509042.
Content: This article from ABC News describe numerous statistics about gang violence in Chicago. It mentions the rise in homicides, the number of gang members, and increased gang activity.
How it was used: This source was used for their estimated number of gang members in Chicago.
9) “Illinois.” Giffords Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence, lawcenter.giffords.org/gun-laws/state-law/illinois/.
Content: This source, Giffords Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence, supplies all the information about Illinois gun laws.
How it was used: This source was used to gather information about many of the laws that differ from Texas’ gun laws.
10) “Inequality and Violent Crime.”, vol. 45, no. 1, 2002, pp. 1-39. https://www-jstor-org.ezproxy.rowan.edu/stable/pdf/10.1086/338347.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A07102c8d9e558472fefa254f72cccc04
Content: This study investigates the link between income inequality and crime by researching many countries for five years, and examine the number of robberies and homicides. The study discovered that there was a positive correlation between crime rates and income inequality.
How it was used: This study was used to show the important of comparing to cities that have equal income inequalities, because income inequality does have a correlation to crime rates.
11) Madhani, Aamer. “Baltimore Is the Nation’s Most Dangerous Big City.” USA Today, Gannett Satellite Information Network, 1 Oct. 2018, http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/2018/02/19/homicides-toll-big-u-s-cities-2017/302763002/.
Content: This source describes the homicide numbers and rates for 2017 and, also, their change from 2016 for all the US 50 largest cities.
How it was used: This source was used for the number of homicides and the homicide rate for Houston and Chicago in 2017.
12) Males, Mike. “Age, Poverty, Homicide, and Gun Homicide.”SAGE Open, vol. 5, no. 1, 2015. https://doaj.org/article/0bac3455534640e389dea20ec8acfbf1
Content: This study examines all the homicide deaths aged 15 to 69 in California from 1991 to 2012 by poverty status. The results show that higher levels of poverty are more concentrated at younger ages. Along with that, the homicide death rate was highest for younger ages and for higher poverty percentage.
How it was used: This study was used mainly for the correlation that a higher homicide death rate was correlated to people who were in a higher poverty bracket. This was used for another example why comparing cities with similar economic characteristics were used.
13) Mayberry, Ed. “UPDATE: Harris County Has State’s Largest Concentration of Gang Members in Texas, Says DPS.” Houston Public Media, Houston Public Media, 26 July 2017, http://www.houstonpublicmedia.org/articles/news/2017/07/26/227326/texas-gang-report-threat-assessment/.
Content: This article describes the high gang violence that is occurring in Harris County, Texas. It mentions biggest gangs in the area and interviews a person from the Department of Public Safety, about the gangs and what is being done about the gangs.
How it was used: This article was used for the names of the largest gangs in the Houston area and information on the gang violence in Texas.
14) “Murder.” FBI, FBI, 10 Sept. 2018, ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2017/crime-in-the-u.s.-2017/topic-pages/murder.
Content: This source is all statistics from the FBI on murders in 2017. The information includes age groups, gender, race, and ethnicity.
How it was used: This source was used for the information regarding the which percent of murders was committed by each gender, race, and ethnicity.
15) “National Center for Health Statistics.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 11 Jan. 2018, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/sosmap/homicide_mortality/homicide.htm.
Content: This source displays the number of homicide deaths and the homicide death rates for all 50 states.
How it was used: This source was used to find the homicide death rates for both Texas and Illinois in 2015.
16) “National Youth Gang Survey Analysis.” Measuring the Extent of Gang Problems, http://www.nationalgangcenter.gov/survey-analysis/measuring-the-extent-of-gang-problems.
Content: This source present information about gangs from 1996-2012. Information such as, estimated number of gangs, distribution of gangs by area type, estimated number of gang members, and number of gang related homicides.
How it was used: This source was used to describe the high number of gang homicides that occurred in cities.
17) “Texas.” Giffords Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence, lawcenter.giffords.org/gun-laws/state-law/texas/.
Content: This source has information on all the gun laws for Texas.
How it was used: This source was used to describe the gun laws Texas has and gun laws that Texas doesn’t share with Illinois.
18) “U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Chicago City, Illinois; Houston City, Texas; UNITED STATES.” Census Bureau QuickFacts, United States Census Bureau, http://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/chicagocityillinois,houstoncitytexas,US/PST045217.
Content: This source has all the census information gathered for Chicago and Houston. This information consists of population, age and sex, race, ethnicity, housing, education, health, economy, income and poverty, business, and geography.
How it was used: Many of the census categories, such as, population, sex, race, ethnicity, economy, and income and poverty, were used and the statistics for each category was needed for both Houston and Chicago.
19) “U.S. – Number of Registered Weapons by State 2018 | Statistic.” Statista, www.statista.com/statistics/215655/number-of-registered-weapons-in-the-us-by-state/.
20) Wood, Keith. “Best States for Gun Owners (2017).” Guns & Ammo, 3 Nov. 2017, www.gunsandammo.com/editorial/best-states-for-gun-owners-2017/247983.
Content: This source has analyzed all the gun laws in all 50 states and the District of Colombia and has listed in order the best states for gun owners to live in based on the gun laws.
How it was used: The source was used when comparing Texas and Illinois and their gun laws, showing that Illinois has more strict gun laws than Texas.