Self-Reflective- veleze22

Core Value 1. My work demonstrates that I used a variety of social and interactive practices that involve recursive stages of exploration, discovery, conceptualization, and development.

 

Writing has not always been my strength so this paper was very difficult for me. Throughout the process I’ve learned to take my time and do as much research as possible before hand. I was confused as to how this essay should even start off in the beginning because I didn’t feel comfortable enough and because I didn’t want it to go in the wrong direction. As you read all the information will piece together and prove my thesis.

 

 

Core Value 2. My work demonstrates that I read critically, and that I placed texts into conversation with one another to create meaning by synthesizing ideas from various discourse communities.

 

In this research paper I wanted to lay off giving my opinion. I wanted to use as much data as possible to show that these are all real-life studies that are being taken very seriously. Without using found sources there would be no point in doing the research, so I used my sources where I thought they educated best.

 

Core Value 3. My work demonstrates that I rhetorically analyzed the purpose, audience, and contexts of my own writing and other texts and visual arguments.

 

I wrote my research paper to be as informative as possible. Although I wanted to prove my thesis I also thought it was important to educate my audience at the same time. I defended all arguments with real data found in my sources.

 

Core Value 4: My work demonstrates that I have met the expectations of academic writing by locating, evaluating, and incorporating illustrations and evidence to support my own ideas and interpretations.

 

I’ve located, evaluated, and incorporated all information in every section needed to support my ideas. Every point was proven with real research and real studies.

 

 

Core Value 5. My work demonstrates that I respect my ethical responsibility to represent complex ideas fairly and to the sources of my information with appropriate citation. 

 

Anything taken from a source is quoted and the publisher is acknowledged and given full credit. I respected all ethical responsibilities and provided my information fairly.

Definition rewrite- veleze22

Get your head in the Game (Definition)

Although professional football players are aware of the dangers of playing the game, they still continue to play. It’s a lifestyle for them. Today the game of football has grown to be much more physical and aggressive than in the past. Players of young age are coming into the league much bigger, stronger, and faster than your average veteran. It’s like a new generation of football. With that being said more injuries to the head are being reported and more players are in need of time off because of them.

 

According to the NCAA Concussion study, “Approximately 300,000 sport-related concussions occur in the United States annually, and the likelihood of serious injury may increase with repeated head injury.” A prospective cohort study of incident and recurrent concussions in a defined group of collegiate athletes was taken place for 3 football seasons, a total of 2,905 players were studied.

 

The NCAA concussion study resulted in 196 reported concussions among 184 players. Of the 196 incident concussions, 94 were included in the assessment group. The overall rate of incident concussion was 0.81 per 1000 athlete exposures. The rate in Division III was also higher than the rates in Divisions I and II.

 

A concussion is a mild form of traumatic brain injury that affects how your brain functions. These effects can be short-term, lasting only a few hours or a couple of days, or cause long-term problems. When players trade blows to the head it causes the head and brain to move back and forward rapidly causing the brain to hit the skull and twist. It damages the delicate cells and structures inside the brain. This can cause physical and chemical changes in your brain to affect how it function and can cause serious long-term effects.

 

University of Utah Health stated that “ About 300,000 TBIs occur each year as a result of sports, according to a study in the Journal of Athletic Training.”

 

Concussions may also cause, “ Headache, a temporary loss of consciousness, feeling as if your brain is in a fog, delayed response to questions, dizziness, ringing in your ears, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, blurred vision, and sensitivity to light and sound.” According to UUH Concussions without a doubt have an effect on the human brain that is unlike any other injury. Those involved in sports that have a high contact to contact aspect to them, are more likely to suffer indefinitely from injuries such as a concussion. Players who have experienced a concussion for themselves, may also be deterred from going back on the field to potentially relive the horror moment that put them out of the game in the first place.

 

Concussions can also have long-term effects on an individual. Some symptoms of a concussion develop hours or even days after the traumatic brain injury. Although, most people that suffer from a concussion only see short-term effects there are cases where people have to suffer long-term. Long-term effects of a concussion can include, “trouble concentrating, memory problems, irritability and other personality changes, sensitivity to light and noise, sleep disturbances, depression and other psychological problems, and disorders of smell and taste.” Some people even suffer from post-concussion syndrome, which is where they seem to still experience symptoms even after it has been six weeks since the injury has occured. What some may fail to realize is that, the more concussions a person has than the more long-term effects an individual may suffer from. This can also occur if one rushes into returning to the same activity that landed them with the concussion itself in the first place without letting their brain fully heal. It is important to let your brain heal to the fullest, because one wrong move can potentially set that person back even further than before.  

Rebuttal rewrite- veleze22

Technology Arises (Rebuttal)

 

Technology is at a stage where it can resolve all problems. It has risen to be one of the most dependable sources in our present time. Technology has the power to even stop concussions occurring in our most dangerous sports, like football. Every year, thousands of football players suffer from mild concussions. Concussions occur when the brain moves and collides with the skull. In contrast to the publicly available data on the safety of automobiles, consumers have no analytical mechanism to evaluate the protective performance of football helmets. A new mechanism called the “STAR Evaluation system” was brainstormed and can be used to evaluate helmet performance by integrating player head impact exposure and risk of concussion. “Development of the STAR Evaluation System for Football Helmets: Integrating Player Head Impact Exposure and Risk of Concussion.” Written by Steven Rowson, explains that the Summation of Tests for the Analysis of Risk (STAR) equation relates on-field impact exposure to a series of 24 drop tests performed at four impact locations and six impact energy levels. Using 62,974 head acceleration data points collected from football players, the number of impacts experienced for one full season was translated to 24 drop test configurations. A new injury risk function was developed from 32 measured concussions and associated exposure data to assess risk of concussion for each impact. The data from all 24 drop tests was combined into one number using the STAR formula that incorporates the predicted exposure and injury risk for one player for one full season of practices and games. The new STAR evaluation equation provided consumers with a meaningful metric to assess the relative performance of football helmets. With that being said coaches must be very attentive to their players and the number of impact blows taken to the head because with this new technology in effect it will be their job to monitor. It is ultimately up to coaches to keep their players safe and to follow the guidelines of this new product. It was tested to its ability and the results speak for themselves.

Overall, impacts to the front of the helmet occurred most frequently, and were followed by impacts to the rear, top, and side of the helmet. Using these percentages, the number of impacts to each impact location for a single player participating in a complete season were computed based on the assumption that a total of 1,000 head impacts were experienced. This transformation gives that for a single season, a player will experience 347 impacts to the front of the helmet, 319 impacts to the rear of the helmet, 171 impacts to the top of the helmet, and 163 impacts to the sides of the helmet. Being that I played football my whole life I can standby these results. Throughout a full season a player goes through a significant amount of hits to the head whether it’s during practice or in a game, the numbers add up well.

 

Impact severity distributions in terms of peak resultant head acceleration were determined for each impact location. Each distribution was fit to a table and displayed the computed parameters for each impact location. The tables displayed impacts to the front of the helmet. The quality of fit was consistently good for all impact locations.

This past season the NFL had launched an Injury Reduction Plan with the aim to reduce the incidence of concussions in the upcoming 2018 season. Following a 16 percent increase in concussions during the 2017 season, NFL Chief Medical Officer Dr. Allen Sills issued a call-to-action to reduce concussions.

“We see our job in player health and safety to have the very best care for our patients as possible—in terms of prevention, in terms of treating and diagnosing injuries, and doing rehabilitation for those injuries—so we can keep our players as safe as possible,” said Dr. Sills.

NFL leaders, clubs and the wide variety of experts in medicine, engineering and science who form the NFL medical committees developed a three-pronged approach to drive behavioral changes. The NFL also created an educational video for players, coaches and club personnel about the concussion reduction strategy.

“We designed what we think are going to be steps that can immediately impact the number of concussions on our fields,” he said.

The NFL made 3 categories that will experience change and improvement they are preseason practices, better performing helmets, and rule changes.

1. Preseason Practices

“The first part of our concussion reduction [strategy],” said Dr. Sills, “is around preseason practices—so we want to work with our clubs to look at how they’re practicing, what types of drills are being done to see if we can drive that number [of concussions] down.”

The NFL is sharing information across the league to educate, stimulate change and enhance player safety—including information about the causes of concussion, the helmets players wear, and injury data analysis, such as preseason practice concussion data.

  1. Better Performing Helmets

The second part of the Injury Reduction Plan is a goal to get players out of lower-performing helmets and into better-performing helmets in an effort to decrease the risk of injury. Each year, helmets undergo laboratory testing by biomechanical engineers appointed by the NFL and the NFL Players Association to evaluate which helmets best reduce head impact severity. The results of the laboratory tests are displayed on a poster and shared with NFL players, club equipment managers, as well as club medical, training and coaching staffs to help inform equipment choices. In 2018, based on the results of this study and the opinions of the biomechanical experts involved, the NFL and NFLPA will prohibit 10 helmet models from being worn by NFL players. It is important to note that no helmet can completely protect against serious brain or neck injuries a player might sustain while playing football, and that the results of this testing should not be extrapolated to collegiate, high school, or youth football.

3. Rules Changes

The third component of the Injury Reduction Plan is the enforcement of rules changes aimed at eliminating potentially risky behavior that could lead to injuries. Through the latest changes including the “Use of the Helmet” rule and kickoff modifications, the NFL is leveraging data in an effort to improve player safety and evolve the game.

 

Research- veleze22

 

Concussions Matter

According to studies of the University of Utah, “A concussion is a mild form of traumatic brain injury that affects how your brain functions. These effects can be short-term, lasting only a few hours or a couple of days, or cause long-term problems.” When players trade blows to the head it causes impact between the brain and the skull. A hit can be so hard that it affects the way a player’s brain functions and can also cause long-term damage. Studies show that about 300,000 TBIs occur in sports each year.

In the sport of football, traumatic brain injuries such as concussions have drastically affected hundreds of professional athletes until this day and still have an impact on the game. The NFL will always have cases of concussions no matter what equipment is worn. Concussions have been a serious present issue with players today. The NFL has tried to resolve the number on concussions occurring during seasons by improving equipment, adding concussion protocols, and making rule changes to ensure the safety of playing at all levels of football. Although these changes have improved and decreased the number of concussions occurring, coaches and organizations must focus on High School and College level players because of all the young, developing brains of the athletes. They must understand that concussions are very severe and can cause long-term damage to the brain. It is important to educate them on the issue while they’re still taking in everything that comes with playing the game of football. Concussions are a serious injury, and should no longer be taken lightly.

Helmet manufacturers have been trying to reduce the impact of hits to the head with new helmet technology. Over the years several new models of helmets have been improved more and more by the year. The National Operating Committee on Standards tests helmets for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE), which provides voluntary standards that are designed to assess a helmet’s ability to prevent skull fracture. These helmets provide bigger and more comfortable padding which only makes the players feel like it’s safer than the standard helmet. What it does is make players want to hit harder while completely disregarding a full impact head to head hit. The University of Utah detailed that, “concussions injure your brain to some extent and they all require time to heal. Brain injury from even the mildest concussions can have short-term and long-term effects. The effects of a concussion can be subtle and change over time. Symptoms can last days, weeks or longer.” Since 2003, researchers have been instrumenting football players with the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) system to collect head acceleration data each time a player experiences a head impact. The measurement and analysis of head acceleration data collected from these in-helmet accelerometer arrays have been well validated and accepted. The concept of the study was to develop and introduce the concept of a new evaluation system that can be used to provide quantitative insight into the protective performance of football helmets against concussions.

                                                        Technology

With this in mind, technology is at a stage where it can resolve all problems. It has risen to be one of the most dependable sources in our present time. Technology has the power to even stop concussions occurring in our most dangerous sports, like football. Every year, thousands of football players suffer from mild concussions. Concussions occur when the brain moves and collides with the skull. A new mechanism called the “STAR Evaluation system” was brainstormed and “can be used to evaluate helmet performance by integrating player head impact exposure and risk of concussion.” “Development of the STAR Evaluation System for Football Helmets: Integrating Player Head Impact Exposure and Risk of Concussion.” Written by Steven Rowson, explains that “the Summation of Tests for the Analysis of Risk (STAR) equation relates on-field impact exposure to a series of 24 drop tests performed at four impact locations and six impact energy levels.” The evaluation system contained 62,974 data points based off of head impact. The STAR formula combined the 24 drop tests with the predicted risk of injury and exposure for each player throughout the whole entire season. The new STAR evaluation equation provides sports science with a special tool that can calculate the performance of helmets being developed. This can really separate the strong from the weak because it’ll always produce accurate data for each helmet. With that being said coaches must be very attentive to all players and the number of impact blows taken to the head. With this new technology in effect it will be a requirement for coaches to monitor players’ helmet performance.  This helmet system may be the next big thing when it comes to preventing head injury and long-term effects caused by concussions involving football.

Overall, impacts to the front of the helmet occurred most frequently, and were followed by impacts to the rear, top, and side of the helmet. Using these percentages, the number of impacts to each impact location for a single player participating in a complete season were computed based on the assumption that a total of 1,000 head impacts were experienced. This transformation gives that for a single season, a player will experience 347 impacts to the front of the helmet, 319 impacts to the rear of the helmet, 171 impacts to the top of the helmet, and 163 impacts to the sides of the helmet. Being that I played football my whole life I can standby these results. Throughout a full season a player goes through a significant amount of hits to the head whether it’s during practice or in a game, the numbers add up well.

                                                        NFL Effects

This past season the NFL had launched an Injury Reduction Plan with the aim to reduce the incidence of concussions in the upcoming 2018 season. Following a 16 percent increase in concussions during the 2017 season, NFL Chief Medical Officer Dr. Allen Sills issued a call-to-action to reduce concussions. “We see our job in player health and safety to have the very best care for our patients as possible—in terms of prevention, in terms of treating and diagnosing injuries, and doing rehabilitation for those injuries—so we can keep our players as safe as possible,” said Dr. Sills. NFL leaders, clubs and the wide variety of experts in medicine, engineering and science who form the NFL medical committees developed a three-pronged approach to drive behavioral changes. The NFL also created an educational video for players, coaches and club personnel about the concussion reduction strategy. “We designed what we think are going to be steps that can immediately impact the number of concussions on our fields,” he said. The NFL made 3 categories that will experience change and improvement they are preseason practices, better performing helmets, and rule changes.

“The first part of our concussion reduction [strategy],” said Dr. Sills, “is around preseason practices—so we want to work with our clubs to look at how they’re practicing, what types of drills are being done to see if we can drive that number [of concussions] down.” The NFL is sharing information across the league to educate, stimulate change and enhance player safety—including information about the causes of concussion, the helmets players wear, and injury data analysis, such as preseason practice concussion data. The second part of the Injury Reduction Plan is a goal to get players out of lower-performing helmets and into better-performing helmets in an effort to decrease the risk of injury. Each year, helmets undergo laboratory testing by biomechanical engineers appointed by the NFL and the NFL Players Association to evaluate which helmets best reduce head impact severity. The results of the laboratory tests are displayed on a poster and shared with NFL players, club equipment managers, as well as club medical, training and coaching staffs to help inform equipment choices. In 2018, based on the results of this study and the opinions of the biomechanical experts involved, the NFL and NFLPA will prohibit 10 helmet models from being worn by NFL players. It is important to note that no helmet can completely protect against serious brain or neck injuries a player might sustain while playing football, and that the results of this testing should not be extrapolated to collegiate, high school, or youth football. The third component of the Injury Reduction Plan is the enforcement of rules changes aimed at eliminating potentially risky behavior that could lead to injuries. Through the latest changes including the “Use of the Helmet” rule and kickoff modifications, the NFL is leveraging data in an effort to improve player safety and evolve the game.

While the NFL did keep in mind the number of injuries that were being recorded, according to the NCAA Concussion study, “Approximately 300,000 sport-related concussions occur in the United States annually, and the likelihood of serious sequelae may increase with repeated head injury.” A prospective cohort study of incident and recurrent concussions in a defined group of collegiate athletes was taken place for 3 football seasons, a total of 2,905 players were studied. “The 2905 college football players were followed up for a total of 4251 player-seasons. Our study resulted in 196 reported concussions among 184 players (12 concussions were prospective repeat concussions). Of the 196 incident concussions, 94 were included in the assessment group. The overall rate of incident concussion was 0.81 per 1000 athlete exposures (95% CI, 0.70-0.93). More than half of the total concussions (n = 101 [51.5%]) occurred in practices, but the rate of concussive injuries in games was markedly higher than the rate in practices (rate ratio, 8.15; 95% CI, 6.16-10.78). The rate in Division III was also higher than the rates in Divisions I and II.”

Effects of Concussions

Concussions can have short-term effects like headaches and confusion. According to the University of Utah, “Some people experience loss of memory and are unable to remember the event in which the concussion occurred.” Some symptoms of having a concussion may be headaches, memory loss, cloudy memory, delayed responses when talking, dizziness, ringing in the ears, nausea, blurry vision, and sensitivity to light and sound. With this in mind, concussions without a doubt have an effect on the human brain that is unlike any other injury. Those involved in sports that have a high contact-to-contact aspect to them, are more likely to suffer indefinitely from injuries such as a concussion. Players, who have experienced a concussion for them, may also be deterred from going back on the field to potentially relive the horror moment that put them out of the game in the first place.

Concussions can also have long-term effects on an individual. Sometimes symptoms of a concussion may begin to occur after the incident. Although most people that suffer from a concussion only see short-term effects there are cases where people have to suffer long-term. The University of Utah stated that long-term effects of a concussion can include, “trouble concentrating, memory problems, irritability, personality changes, sensitivity to light and noise, sleep disturbances, depression and other psychological problems.” Some people suffer from post-concussion syndrome, which is when you are still experiencing symptoms more then a month after the injury has occurred. What some may fail to realize is that, the more concussions a person has than the more long-term effects an individual may suffer from. This can also occur if one rushes into returning to the same activity that landed them with the concussion itself in the first place without letting their brain fully heal. It is important to let your brain heal to the fullest, because one wrong move can potentially set that person back even further than before.

In conclusion, concussions are more serious than most people would think. The effects of these traumatic injuries can be life changing, and ruin ones career and lifelong dreams. No matter what equipment is made to decrease a concussion from happening, it will never be sufficient for one to be completely risk-free. It is important to take into consideration that the NFL has even worked diligently on trying to prevent their players from having to suffer from such injury, which is why concussions should be taken even more seriously. Concussions have long-lasting effects, can destroy our youth’s both physically and emotionally, and can damage the future for our children when it comes to playing sports and living their life to the fullest.

References

Collins, M. W. (1999, September 08.) Relationship Between Concussion and

Neuropsychological Performance in College Football Players. Retrieved from https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/191533

Comparison of Mouth Guard Designs and Concussion Prevention … : Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. (2005, April/May). Retrieved from https://journals.lww.com/cjsportsmed/Abstract/2005/09000/Comparison_of_Mouth_Guard_Designs_and_Concussion.3.aspx

Concussions: How They Can Affect You Now and Later  . (n.d.). Retrieved from

https://healthcare.utah.edu/healthfeed/postings/2016/11/concussion.php

Guskiewicz, K. M., & ATC. (2003, November 19). Cumulative Effects Associated With

Recurrent Concussion in Collegiate Football Players. Retrieved from https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/197667

Guskiewicz, M., K., Marshall, W., S., Bailes, Julian, . . . D., B. (2005, October 01). Association between Recurrent Concussion and Late-Life Cognitive Impairment in Retired Professional Football Players. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/neurosurgery/article-abstract/57/4/719/3775312?redirectedFrom=fulltext

Incidence of Sports-Related Concussion among Youth Football Players Aged 8-12 Years. (2013, June 14). Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022347613004289

Olson, Grossberg, & T., G. (2016, March 01). ‘We Need to Protect the Brain’: Addressing the Growing Problem of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy. Retrieved from https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-447930732/we-need-to-protect-the-brain-addressing-the-growing

Rowson, S., & Duma, S. M. (2011, May 07). Development of the STAR Evaluation System for Football Helmets: Integrating Player Head Impact Exposure and Risk of Concussion. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10439-011-0322-5

Schwarz, A. (2009, December 03). N.F.L. Issues New Guidelines on Concussions. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/03/sports/football/03concussion.html

Traumatic Brain Injury – Football, Warfare, and Long-Term Effects | NEJM. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmp1007051

 

Bibliography- veleze22

  1. Guskiewicz, K. M., & ATC. (2003, November 19). Cumulative Effects Associated With Recurrent Concussion in Collegiate Football Players. Retrieved from https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/197667

 

Background: This article estimates the number of players who are likely to sustain another concussion after already being diagnosed with one. An estimated 300,000 sport related concussions occur annually in the United States and with repeated head injury among players the likelihood of serious head injury in the future will only increase. 2,905 football players from 25 U.S colleges were tested for three consecutive years, followed up for repeat concussions until the end of the third year.

 

How I plan to use it: I plan to use this source as an example to prove my thesis as well as compare these studies to what can continue occurring to players in the U.S. I believe this number will continue increasing.

 

 

  1. Concussions: How They Can Affect You Now and Later  . (n.d.). Retrieved from https://healthcare.utah.edu/healthfeed/postings/2016/11/concussion.php

 

Background: This article explains what a concussion is. It explains the short-term and long-term effects of a concussion and what it may do to someone with repetitive incidents.

 

How I plan to use it: I plan to use this source to provide my readers with the knowledge of a concussion.

 

 

  1. Rowson, S., & Duma, S. M. (2011, May 07). Development of the STAR Evaluation System for Football Helmets: Integrating Player Head Impact Exposure and Risk of Concussion. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10439-011-0322-5

 

Background: This article explains the development of a self-evaluating system for football helmets. This system will integrate player head impact exposure and the risk of a concussion.

 

How I plan to use it: I plan to use this source as an example to stress that head injury is to be taken seriously. With technology evolving, scientists are trying to find a way to prevent concussions because the risk of permanent head injury. Equipment over the years has improved but concussions are still occurring.

 

 

  1. Traumatic Brain Injury – Football, Warfare, and Long-Term Effects | NEJM. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmp1007051

 

Background: This article tries to bring awareness to NFL players about traumatic brain injury and the long-term effects it can have on players.

 

How I plan to use it: I plan to use this source to explain that the public is well aware of these injuries and what it can do to someone. Traumatic brain injury can change a person’s whole persona for life no matter the equipment.

 

  1. Olson, Grossberg, & T., G. (2016, March 01). ‘We Need to Protect the Brain’: Addressing the Growing Problem of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy. Retrieved from https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-447930732/we-need-to-protect-the-brain-addressing-the-growing

 

Background: This article explains that most the time concussions are almost motivated because players don’t want to let their teams down or look bad. It explains diseases that can come with having a concussion and stages to expect. Players are aware of what the game can bring.

 

 

How I plan to use it: I plan to this source to gather information on the diseases that repetitive head injury can bring and the stages to expect.

 

 

  1. Guskiewicz, M., K., Marshall, W., S., Bailes, Julian, . . . D., B. (2005, October 01). Association between Recurrent Concussion and Late-Life Cognitive Impairment in Retired Professional Football Players. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/neurosurgery/article-abstract/57/4/719/3775312?redirectedFrom=fulltext

 

Background: This article explains an investigation in association between previous head injury and the likelihood of developing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as well as Alzheimer’s Disease within a group of retired professional football players with previous head injury exposure. A questionnaire was completed by 2,552 retired professional football players.

 

How I plan to use it: I plan to use this study to explain the long-term effects of playing professional football, while not having the equipment players have today. Players today are stull sustaining serious head injury.

 

  1. Schwarz, A. (2009, December 03). N.F.L. Issues New Guidelines on Concussions. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/03/sports/football/03concussion.html

 

Background: This article explains an announcement by the NFL that it would impose its most stringent rules to managing concussions, requiring players who show any sign of concussion to be removed for the rest of the game.

 

How I plan to use it: I plan on using this article to expose but at the same time show that the NFL is trying to prevent head injuries and no longer letting players return with symptoms.

 

 

  1. Collins, M. W. (1999, September 08). Relationship Between Concussion and Neuropsychological Performance in College Football Players. Retrieved from https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/191533

 

Background: This article shows a study with 393 athletes from 4 university football programs across the United States. All players received preseason baseline evaluations between May 1997 and February 1999. Subjects who had subsequent football-related acute concussions underwent neuropsychological comparison with matched control athletes from within the sample. This study is similar to Guskiewicz’s but with less players.

 

 

How I plan to use: I plan to use this study as an example to prove my thesis. I’d also like to compare these studies to what can continue occurring to players if the prevention of head injury isn’t taken serious.

 

  1. Incidence of Sports-Related Concussion among Youth Football Players Aged 8-12 Years. (2013, June 14). Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022347613004289

 

Background: This article shows a study amongst youth football plyers aged 8-12. 468 youth football players in Pennsylvania during the 2011 season. Incidence rates and incidence density ratios of concussion were calculated for games as well as practices. All recordings were separated by age group.

 

How I plan to use it: I plan to use this article to prove that concussions occur to players while they’re young. Building all the head impact from youth to a college level can also cause long-term effects. No matter what equipment we use concussions will continue to occur because head impact will always occur. It is part of the game of Football.

 

 

  1. Comparison of Mouth Guard Designs and Concussion Prevention … : Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. (2005, April/May). Retrieved from https://journals.lww.com/cjsportsmed/Abstract/2005/09000/Comparison_of_Mouth_Guard_Designs_and_Concussion.3.aspx

 

Background: This article tries to explain the comparison of mouth guard design and concussion prevention in contact sports.

 

How I plan to use it: I plan to use this article to continue proving my thesis. No matter what technology is designed to prevent head impact or put our body in a position to take impact, the impact can still cause injury to the head.

 

 

Rebuttal- Veleze22

Technology Arises

     Technology is at a stage where it can solve just about any problem. It has risen to be one of the most dependable sources in our present time. Technology has the power to even stop concussions occurring in our most dangerous sports, like football. Every year, thousands of football players suffer from mild concussions. Concussions occur when the brain moves and collides with the skull. In comparison to the publicly available data on the safety vehicles, organizations have no technology to evaluate the protective performance of football helmets. A new mechanism called the “STAR Evaluation system” was brainstormed and can be used to evaluate helmet performance by detecting player head impact exposure and risk of concussion. STAR stands for Summation of Tests for the Analysis of Risk, the test relates on-field impacted hits to a series of 24 drop tests performed at four different impact locations and six impact energy levels. The test used 62,974 head acceleration data points collected from football players, the number of impacts experienced for one full season was translated to 24 drop test configurations. A new injury risk function was developed from 32 measured concussions and made exposed data to assess risk of concussion for each of the impacts. All the data from the 24 drop tests were combined into one number using the STAR formula that counted the predicted exposure and injury risk for one athlete for an entire full season of practices and games. The STAR evaluation equation gave consumers an important tool to assess the relative performance of football helmets. With that being said this device can key to preventing head injury for all players, even outside the sport of football. Coaches must be very attentive to their players and take notice in the number of impact blows these players receive because with this new technology in effect it will be up to them to monitor and distinguish when a player has been hit one too many times. It’s a coaches job to keep their players safe and to follow the guidelines received from their coaching association. This new device has been tested to its ability and the results speak for themself.

     Impacts to the front of the helmet occurred most frequently while recording data, and were followed by impacts to the rear, top, and side of the players helmets. Using these percentages, the number of blows to each player playing in a complete season were computed based on the hypothesis that a total of 1,000 head blows were experienced. This information basically tells you that for a single season, a player will experience an estimated 347 impacts to the front of the helmet, 319 impacts to the rear of the helmet, 171 impacts to the top of the helmet, and 163 impacts to the sides of the helmet. Being that I played football my whole life I can standby these results. Throughout a full season a player goes through a significant amount of hits to the head whether it’s during practice or in a game, the numbers substantially add up.

     In addition to the prevention of concussions, this past season the NFL launched an Injury Reduction Plan with the aim to reduce the number of concussions in the upcoming 2018 season. Following a 16 percent increase in concussions during the 2017 season, NFL Chief Medical Officer Dr. Allen Sills issued a call-to-action to try and reduce the number of concussions occurring during the season.

Sills stated, “We see our job in player health and safety to have the very best care for our patients as possible. In terms of prevention, in terms of treating and diagnosing injuries, and doing rehabilitation for those injuries. So we can keep our players as safe as possible.”

     NFL leaders, clubs and the wide variety of experts in medicine, engineering and science who form the NFL medical committees developed a three point approach to drive behavioral changes. The NFL also created an educational video for players, coaches and club personnel about the concussion reduction strategy, this would inform everyone in the organization the risks and how they are approaching them. Leaders in the 2018 press conference think they have designed what they think are going to be steps that can immediately impact the number of concussions on the football field.

     The NFL made 3 categories that will experience change and improvement, they are the following:

Preseason Practices

     The NFL wants their teams to take practices lightly. They don’t want players to hit full contact because it would prevent injury upon players and lower the risk of getting a concussion. Preseason only gets players ready for the regular season. It is not necessarily supposed to be taken serious. Players sometimes find themselves to be performing at very high-rate in the preseason and coaches do not want their players getting hurt and risking their regular season play. Depending on the injury, a player can be out for as long as a whole season, even longer. After getting hurt most players have to go through rehabilitation and build themselves back up to the point where they can play again, if that’s even possible.

 Better Performing Helmets

     The second part of the Injury Reduction Plan is a goal to get players out of lower-performing helmets and into better-performing helmets in an effort to decrease the risk of injury. Each year, helmets go through official testing by biomechanical engineers hired by the NFL and the NFL Players Association. Their job is to evaluate which helmets best reduce head impact severity. The results of the laboratory tests are displayed on posters and shared with NFL players, club equipment managers, as well as club medical, training and coaching staffs to help inform equipment choices and what’s best to wear. This year based on the results of the study and the opinions of the biomechanical experts involved, the NFL and NFLPA will not allow 10 helmet models from being worn by NFL players. It is important to remember that no helmet can completely protect a player against serious brain or neck injuries a player might sustain while playing football, and that the results of this testing should not be shared or passed down to collegiate, high school, or youth football.

 Rule Changes

     The third component of the Injury Reduction Plan is the enforcement of rules changes aimed at eliminating potentially risky behavior that could lead to injuries. Through the latest changes including the “Use of the Helmet” rule and kickoff modifications, the NFL is leveraging data in an effort to improve player safety and evolve the game. The NFL will not tolerate helmet-to-helmet contacts on players but most importantly the quarterback position. In past years the rule of helmet-to-helmet contact was not strictly enforced and sometimes officials would let the hit “slip.” In our present time these matters are taken very seriously. If a players fails to comprehend and follow the rules he will fined and/or suspended from a game.

In conclusion, the NFL is trying to decrease the amount of concussions their players are experiencing. As  previously stated, the STAR equation shows a direct correlation with players receiving direct impacts to their helmets. Depending on the location of the impact, depends on the severity of the concussion. The NFL wants to ensure the safety for their players on and off the field. In turn, that is why they created the three prong approach. Ensuring their players safety allows players to potentially experience a healthier long lasting life.

References

Rowson, Steven, and Stefan M. Duma. “Development of the STAR Evaluation System for Football Helmets: Integrating Player Head Impact Exposure and Risk of Concussion.” SpringerLink, Springer US, 7 May 2011, link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10439-011-0322-5.

“The 2018 Injury Reduction Plan: Initiatives to Advance Player Health and Safety.” NFL Play Smart, Play Safe, http://www.playsmartplaysafe.com/newsroom/videos/2018-injury-reduction-plan-initiatives-advance-player-health-safety/?utm_source=google&utm_medium=search&utm_content=gen-safety&utm_campaign=plan.

Olson, et al. “’We Need to Protect the Brain’: Addressing the Growing Problem of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy.” Current Psychiatry, Dowden Health Media, Inc., 1 Mar. 2016, http://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-447930732/we-need-to-protect-the-brain-addressing-the-growing.

Causal—veleze22

Sunday Night Head to Head Lights

In the sport of football, traumatic brain injuries such as concussions have drastically affected hundreds of professional athletes until this day and still has an impact on the game. The NFL will always have cases of concussions no matter what equipment is worn. Concussions have been a serious present issue with players today. The NFL has tried to resolve the number on concussions occurring during seasons by improving equipment, adding concussion protocols, and making rule changes to ensure the safety of playing at all levels of football. Although these changes have improved and decreased the number of concussions occurring, coaches and organizations must focus on High School and College level players because of all the young, developing brains of the athletes. They must understand that concussions are very severe and can cause long-term damage to the brain. It is important to educate them on the issue while they’re still taking in everything that comes with playing the game of football.

Helmet manufacturers have been trying to reduce the impact of hits to the head with new helmet technology. Over the years several new models of helmets have been improved more and more by the year. Helmets are tested by the National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) which provides voluntary standards that are designed to assess a helmet’s ability to prevent skull fracture. These helmets provide bigger and more comfortable padding which only makes the players feel like it’s safer than the standard helmet. What it does is make players want to hit harder while completely disregarding a full impact head to head hit. No matter how they happen, concussions injure your brain to some extent and they all require time to heal. Brain injury from even the mildest concussions can have short-term and long-term effects.The effects of a concussion can be subtle and change over time. Symptoms can last days, weeks or longer. Since 2003, researchers have  been instrumenting football players with the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) system to collect head acceleration data each time a player experiences a head impact. The measurement and analysis of head acceleration data collected from these in-helmet accelerometer arrays have been well validated and accepted. The concept of the study was to develop and introduce the concept of a new evaluation system that can be used to provide quantitative insight into the protective performance of football helmets against concussions.

Coaches feel obligated to keep their players safe from injury but should be held responsible on some occasions of concussions. As a coach you should always prevent injury to players. Coaches usually take it easy on players during practice. Players usually don’t practice with knee pads or thigh pads, are restricted from contact hitting, and mainly run through the motions for gameday. In a close game things are completely opposite, players obviously wear full gear and play full contact but coaches tend to push their players to the limit and get desperate to deliver wins for the school because their reason for being hired in the first place. This is where injuries come into play and it’s the coaches job to prevent that which isn’t always the case. In 2009, the NFL announced that it would impose its most stringent rules to date on managing concussions, requiring players who exhibit any significant sign of concussion to be removed from a game or practice and be barred from returning that same game. There were cases where players stopped showing symptoms or passed sideline tests and returned to the game not knowing that they really had a head injury. The NFL’s practice of allowing players to return has been a criticized for putting players at risk. It is widely known that symptoms of a concussion can reappear hours or days after the injury, indicating that the player had not healed from the initial blow. The new rule still allowed players with some fleeting concussion symptoms to return to games. Symptoms that require immediate removal include amnesia, poor balance and an abnormal neurological examination, whether or not those symptoms quickly subside. For symptoms like like dizziness and headache, however, a player can return to the field unless they are “persistent”, as the statement said.

 

References

 

Rowson, Steven, and Stefan M. Duma. “Development of the STAR Evaluation System for Football Helmets: Integrating Player Head Impact Exposure and Risk of Concussion.” SpringerLink, Springer US, 7 May 2011, link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10439-011-0322-5.

“Concussions: How They Can Affect You Now and Later  .” University of Utah Health, healthcare.utah.edu/healthfeed/postings/2016/11/concussion.php.

 

Schwarz, Alan. “N.F.L Issues New Guidelines on Concussions.” New York Times, 3 Dec. 2009.