Background: This essay talks about the characteristics of Black hair and the different styles used to maintain it. Also talks about modern Black hair styles.
How I used it: I used this reference to describe how braids and other hairstyles have become popular in recent time. I also included what was considered good and bad hair and the correlation they have to oppression.
Background: The book defines what Black hair is and womanhood involving hair. The book is on the beliefs and stereotypes around Black people and their hair. This source goes in to what Black hair symbolizes and how it has been the center of oppression and low self-esteem for black women. The author interviewed many women of different ethnicities and documented their opinions on their hair and other women’s hair.
How I used it: I used this to explain the opinions of Black hair and why Black women style their hair the way they do. I also use it to define an aspect of bad hair and what afros mean to Black people.
3. Source:Bellinger, Whitney. Why African- American Women Try To Obtain ‘Good Hair’. University of Pittsburg: Sociological Viewpoints. Web. Fall, 2007.
Background: An study examined the definition of “good hair” according to African American women in order to understand the reasons young African American women choose to change their hair from its supposed “natural” state.
How I used it: Younger African American women say they no longer follow historical norms of wanting to appear White in appearance, but claim that they change their hair’s chemical make-up for time, ease of styling, and the creation and perpetuation of healthy hair. Other choose to not change their hair based on racial pride taught.
4. Source: Byrd, Ayana., & Tharps, Lori. Hair story: Untangling the roots of Black hair in America. New York: St. Martin’s Press. 2001. Google Books. Web. November 2018.
Background: This is a book on Black hair and culture. The author writes about the beauty and biological advantage of kinky hair. The author ties together the idea of inky hair being a political and/or personal statement.
How I used it: Describe why relaxed hair is preferred by White and black people. A description of Black hair and why it is disliked.
5. Source: Chaplin, G., and Jablonski, N. G. “The Evolution of Skin Pigmentation and Hair Texture in People of African Ancestry.” Dermatol Clinics. Web. 2014. 32: 113–121.
Background: A reference for information on the historical, political, economic, and cultural relations between people of African descent and the rest of the world community.
How I used it: Background of Black culture in the last 60 years and what defines beauty. The belief of whether to alter their hair or to leave it in its natural state.
6. Source: Davies, Carole Boyce. Encyclopedia of the African Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture. Santa Barbara. 2008. ABC- CLIO.
Background: This is a book on the African diaspora and the lasting changes on the descendants. The book evaluates the political, economic, and changes involving Black people in America.
How I used it: I explained the time period in which Black men and women started to appreciate their natural hair and embodied Black pride. I explained the afro and how it is correlated with black militancy and antiwhite beliefs. How the afro changes daily life and workplace capability.
7. Source: Donaldson, Chanel. “Hair Alteration Practices Amongst Black Women and the Assumption of Self Hatred.” NYU Steinhardt, Department of Applied Psychology. New York: New York University. Web. 2018.
Background: Academic research and popular culture often assume that Black women who alter their natural hair to make it straight are practicing a form of self-hatred. This article describes why it is believed that Black women hate their hair and their ethnic features. It explains what it means to look White.
How I used it: I wrote about what is considered attractive or appealing to White and Black women. I used it to describe how Black women want to look when it comes to their hair and their features.
8. Source: Jablonski, Nina G. Skin: A Natural History, 1st ed. University of California Press, 2006. JSTOR. Retrieved 2018.
Background: This books is written about the biology of hair and skin. It explains the use of hair and how it helps us naturally.
How I used it: I explained how hair was biologically advantageous. I used the information to talk about how kinky hair is biologically made for hotter climates.
9. Source: Jackson, Alicia C. “Attempting whiteness : Black women’s expected and actual results of skin bleaching” (2013). Theses, Dissertations, and Projects. 1003.
Background: This essay and study’s topic is on Black men and women wanting to look as White as possible and why they do. The purpose of the study is to explain the different reasons for changing their physical appearance.
How I used it: I talked about the practice of skin bleaching and why it is so common.
10. Source: Martin, Areva. “The Hatred of Black Hair Goes Beyond Ignorance.” Time. August 23, 2017.
Background: This article discusses the beliefs and stereotypes that other people that are not Black have on Black women’s hair. It discusses the pressures that Black women have when it comes to their hair in the workplace. Discusses policies that were put in place in schools, military, and corporations to control Black hair.
How I used it: I discussed the study on the negative stereotypes and their consequences on young Black girls’ self-esteem. The learned to hate their natural hair.
11. Source: Schottham, Krista M., Sellers, Robert M., Nyugen, Hoa X. “A measure of racial identity in African American adolescents: the development of the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity–Teen” Cultural diversity & ethnic minority psychology, vol. 14(4) (2008): 297-306.
Background: A study conducted on black teens and their racial identity. They used a scale called the MMRI to define racial identity and its hierarchy.
How I used it: To explain why some Black people belief that other black people are not black enough. I also used their essay to discuss negative self esteem and identity.
12. Source: Okura, Lynn. “Inside the Controversial Skin bleaching Phenomenon.” Huffpost. OWN. December 2015.
Background: Bleaching creams and gels have been used for decades as a way to lighten skin and not just for Black people. These creams encourage discontent with their darker skin and encourages lighter skin to be held on a platform. Darker skin within the Black community is considered unnattractive and these women seek lighter skin tones. The article goes into the controversy by discusses how damaging this can be to the skin and cause cancer.
How I used it: I used this for background information for the practice of skin bleaching. I explained its form of self hatred for darker skin and how the practice is mostly held by Black women who are trying to look more attractive.
13. Source: Vissa Studios. “Back to the Basics – What Black Women Used During Slavery”. VS+. 2017
Background: This is an article from a blog on hair during slavery. Women and men used different types of harsh chemicals to tame and control their hair to make their hair more similar to White people. It discusses what hair means as a status and how styling their hair was a group effort and had value.
How I used it: I used it as background information. Slavery was the beginning of the change in hair for African and African- American people. I explained what they used in their hair and why they did it.