Bibliography — Kevinbacon

1.  Lott, J. R. (2010). “More Guns, Less Crime: Understanding Crime and Gun Control Laws, Third Edition.” Retrieved December 1, 2018.

Background: This book provides a deeper look into the correlation between gun control and crimes. It also provides numerous accounts and cases where an individual broke off an attack, or saved their own life by using/brandishing a gun. The novel also includes many pro-gun statistics such as a survey in 2002 indicated that about 95% of the time weapons were used for defense, they only had to be brandished to repel the attacker.

How I used it: This source helped me look at the issue of gun control as, more control means more crime. It took the counterintuitive approach to gun control which helped me support my thesis. I specifically took an example from the book talking about how an elderly woman fended off a criminal with her gun. The criminal was trying to break into her home, and when he saw she had a firearm he turned around and ran away. This source helped me demonstrate that with stricter gun control, this old lady might of not had the means to defend herself and would have been a victim to a burglary or even a murder.

2. Jacobs, J. B. (2002, September 12). “Can Gun Control Work?” Retrieved November 28, 2018.

Background: This novel provides a lot of background information on violent crimes such as multiple killings and rampage killers. This source also pushes the idea that most crimes are committed without a firearm in the U.S, so the problem isn’t the easily accessible gun market. The source goes on the provide many charts and statistics relating violence and crimes in the U.S to other factors such as poverty, and non gun-related factors.

How I used it: I used this source in my research paper to highlight a correlation that does not exist. In Can Gun Control work the author talks about how if more guns results in more crime then the United States would have the highest rate of suicides and homicides. However, we do not have the highest rates compared to other nations.

3. Stossel, J. (2007, April 26). “Gun Control isn’t Crime Control.” Retrieved November 28, 2018.

Background: This article gives a first hand account on how the UK passed a very strict gun control law, banning citizens from owning basically any type of handgun. This law however, did not immediately remove all of the handguns in circulation in England. There is still an estimated 250,000 handguns still in the UK and now that they are banned only the criminals will be in possessions of these weapons.

How I used it: This will help my hypothesis because it demonstrates that enforcing strict gun laws and taking away the weapons of civilians, just leads to the criminals being the only people owning weapons. How can the average citizen defend themselves against weapons when they have none? No one wants a society where only the outlaws have weapons. Within my essay I included this source to explain exactly how gun control is not the same as crime control. I used the shooting of 16 kids in Dunblane, England. This tragic event was recorded in Gun Control isn’t Crime Control. The U.K had passed very strict gun control laws but it did not stop this fatal shooting from happening.  

4. Kopel, D. B. (1988, July 11). “Trust the People: The Case Against Gun Control.” Retrieved November 12, 2018.

Background: Gun control revolves around the false idea that the average American citizen should not be trusted with a firearm. The article goes on to compare gun laws to the violation of our rights, such as if search and seizure was violated. It also victimizes those who need weapons for self defense the most, such as African Americans and women. 

How I used it: This source was not very useful when writing my research paper and I did not include it in my essay. However it did give me some insight on the different types of gun laws that can effect individuals such as, licensing, waiting periods, and bans. Also it lead me to realize, gun control leads to the victimization of people who would most likely be effected by crimes. Banning guns might be as effective as banning alcohol to lower the number of drunk driving accidents. Many times when individuals are told not to do something, they do it anyway, and with consequences. This article made me ask myself, who is more trustworthy, the people or the government? Overall, this article helped me develop my thoughts on this issue, even though it wasn’t utilized as a source in my research paper. 

5. Harvard Study: Gun Control is Counterproductive.” (2018). Retrieved November 28, 2018.

Background: This study highlights the fact that there is no correlation between violent crime and gun ownership. In fact, there is a negative correlation, where more gun ownership leads to lower murder and suicide rates. A handful of European nations, who had a lower rate of gun owners was compared to other nations with more gun owners. The murder rate was three times higher in the countries who had less citizens with firearms. Taking away gun ownership can cause a nation, such as Russia, into totalitarian and police state. These kind of environments can be more dangerous for citizens.    

How I used it: I used this Harvard study in my essay to demonstrate how more gun control leads to more crime. I utilized the portion of this source discussing how strict gun laws have effected the murder rates in 18 European countries. There were 9 countries with lenient gun laws and 9 with strict ones. The strict ones showed a higher murder rate than the countries who had more lenient laws. This supports the claim that tighter guns laws lead to higher murder rates.   

6. De Fátima Marinho de Souza, M., Macinko, J., Pereira Alencar, A., Carvalho Malta, D., & Libânio de Morais Neto, O. (2007, March/April). “Reductions In Firearm-Related Mortality And Hospitalizations In Brazil After Gun Control.” Retrieved November 28, 2018. 

Background: In this article a study was conducted in multiple cities and state capitals in Brazil. The correlations between newly established gun laws and homicide and hospital rates are analyzed. This article accredits the 8% drop in firearm mortality rates to new gun laws passed by the Brazilian government.

How I used it: This article was extremely beneficial for the development of my essay. I utilized this article both to support my thesis and in the rebuttal section of my essay. In order to support my thesis I first examined and then refuted the information found in this study. Yes, the homicide rates had decreased by about 8.2% but the data was only recorded in major cities and capitals. It also only took into consideration crimes reported by the police. The police, especially in a country like Brazil, do not report every crime and many crimes go unseen by the public. In my rebuttal I used this source to compare the United States to Brazil. Two totally different environments call for totally different crime outcomes. They simply can not be compared thoroughly, therefore the fact that this article vouches for the effectiveness of gun control laws is invalid.

7. Baker, A., & Goldstein, J. (2011, December 30). “Police Tactic: Keeping Crime Reports Off the Books.” The New York Times. Retrieved November 28, 2018.

Background: In this article written for the New York Times, instances where citizens reported a crime, but the crime was never taken serious by authorities are discussed. The reasons for why the police would not record some crimes are also brought up. These include; it wasn’t important enough, the police did not want to go through the trouble of filing the paper work, and the suspect could not be identified.

How I used it: In my essay I use this article in support of my thesis that, more gun control does not lead to less crime. A big factor in determining the Mouton of crime that occurs is figuring out first if the crime was even recorded. I bring in examples from the text that demonstrate why police may fail to record crimes that occur. Officers can get held up doing other tasks for their job, they might not want to file the paper work, or they might see the crime as insignificant in the grand scheme of their job. Also I pull facts from the text such as the rate of unreported crimes by the NYPD in 2000 was 4.4%.

8. Cook, P. J., Ludwig, J., Venkatesh, S., & Braga, A. A. (2005, November 07). “Underground Gun Markets.” Retrieved November 28, 2018.

Background: This working paper describes the economic aspects of the underground gun market by interviewing those involved, and by looking at statistics. Over 500,000 guns are stolen each year for the underground market. This research was conducted in the city of Chicago. Those interviewed consisted of, gang members, gun dealers, professional thieves, prostitutes, police, teens and school security guards. These first hand accounts prove successful in achieving relevant information and insight on the illegal gun trade. This paper is an example of how criminals will go to any extent to buy guns.

How I used it: This article was useful when arguing against gun control laws. With strict gun policies comes the development of this underground market. When criminals can get their hands on guns due to tighter laws, they turn towards illegal means to obtain them. This is a direct consequence of gun laws. When criminals get their guns from these markets it is very tough and sometimes even impossible to track down and locate the weapons.

9. Cook, P. J., & Ludwig, J. (2004, September 06). “The Social Costs of Gun Ownership.” Retrieved November 28, 2018.

Background: This paper takes a look at the many sides regarding gun control. It takes a look at many hypothesis’s such as more guns, more crime, and more guns, less crime. It also discusses how many people have gun ownership in the US and how most guns are owned by citizens who have four or more guns. It also looks at the distribution of guns, where most people own guns in middle class, average income, suburban areas. The social cost of household gun ownership is anywhere between $100 to $600 in the United States.

How I used it: I did not incorporate this source into my research paper. However, it did lead me to other helpful sources such as The Underground Gun Market. Both these sources were situated on the same website. To add, this paper showed me what types of people owned the most guns in the US. This helped me develop my ideas on how guns are important for safety and protection, especially for women and minorities in cities.

10. Azrael, D., Cook, P. J., & Miller, M. (2001, October 01). “State and Local Prevalence of Firearm Ownership: Measurement, Structure, and Trends.” Retrieved November 15, 2018.

Background: This paper compared suicide rates with firearms to other crimes and trends. It also shows that the geographic ownership of guns in the United States has remained stable over many years. This means that people are consistently owning and buying guns. This is because of social reasons and also traditions. This paper also attempts to measure the effects of gun prevalence in the United States. It does this through surveys which are issues through the state and locally. National surveys are also used but tend to be more spotty and less accurate.

How I used it: I did not include this paper within my research paper. It was interesting to see the effects of gun prevalence in the United States, and how it impacts homicide and suicide rates.

11. Lombardo, C. (2017, November 08). “10 Advantages and Disadvantages of Gun Control.” Retrieved November 28, 2018.

Background: This article takes a look at both sides of gun control. It lists 10 advantages and 10 disadvantages of gun control. Some of the disadvantages included were, people fear guns because they do not understand them, and the value of human life isn’t changed from gun control. Many people are not instructed about guns and gun safety and just looking at a gun installs fear in their minds. When properly taught how to handle a gun it becomes less deadly, and frightening. Also, people who value human life less than the average person wont be persuaded to stop their deadly actions through gun control laws. Yes, it might make it harder for someone to acquire a gun, but they still have that absurd tendency within them to wrongfully take someone’s life.

How I used it: I used the disadvantages to gun control to support the argument in my research essay. I specifically looked at the last listed disadvantage which claims that gun control won’t change the way some people value human life. In other words, killers will not be persuaded to stop killing people if a gun control law is passed. Some people have this instinct to kill embedded within them, and it is more of a psychological issue. Gun control doesn’t stop these killers, it only slows them down. This disadvantage supports my claim that gun control does not affect crime rates.

12. Aizenman, N. (2017, October 06). “Gun Violence: How The U.S. Compares With Other Countries.” Retrieved December 2, 2018.

Background: This source looks at how the United States ranks against other countries in the world when it comes to violent gun deaths per 100,000 people in 2016 (United States ranks the 31st highest in gun violence). It gets the data from the University of Washington’s Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation database. This large database tracks the amount of deaths in every country, every year, by any possible cause of death. This article also depicts using multiple illustrations, how the United States compares to Africa and the Middle East’s violent gun death rates. The more indication of socioeconomic success present in a country, usually the lower the rate of gun violence will be. Examples of these socioeconomic success factors are income per person and average education level.

How I used it: This article was a useful source when constructing my rebuttal for my research essay. This source counter argued claims made by another source that I had used. The other source claimed that the United States had a significantly higher homicide rate from firearms than many other nations. However, this source showed that there are many other countries with much higher firearm induced homicide rates, than the United States. This point is shown through the use of multiple graphs and illustrations. The one graph I utilized showed the United State’s Violent gun death rate per 100,000 people in 2016, as 3.85. Both Brazil and Colombia had much higher rates, Brazil’s being 19.34 and Colombia’s being 25.94. This source helped me argue that there were in fact other countries with substantially higher gun violence rates, who might have also implemented gun control policies.

13. Noyes, D. (n.d.). “How Criminals Get Guns.” Retrieved December 4, 2018.

Background: This source looks at the methods for the illegal buying and selling of firearms. Some of these methods, asides from theft, are; straw-purchases, which is when someone who wishes to remain anonymous has a companion purchase a firearm for them. Individuals do this when they cannot legally buy a gun or want it to remain a secret. Corrupt at-home and commercial firearms dealers are another large source of illegal firearm purchase. Unlicensed street dealers who obtain their firearms through illegal business with dealers who are licensed are also very common. This article also talks about the black market for guns in the United States, and how easy it can be for almost any citizen to acquire a firearm.

How I used it: I used the numerous facts from this source to strengthen the sections of my research paper dealing with the availability of illegal guns. I used each different means of illegal firearm purchase that this article had listed, as well as the fact that only about 8% of our nation’s 124,000 retail gun dealers have sold handguns that were used in crimes.

14. “Gun Control and Crime in non-US Countries.” (2018, May 14). Retrieved December 5, 2018.

Background: This source lists myths and facts pertaining to gun control. It advocates for the idea that there is no correlation between gun control and crime. It looks at the crime rates of many countries, and examines how England in particular has a high rate of crime, but very strict gun laws.

How I used it: The facts and myths listed in this source were useful when incorporated into my essay. I used each fact and myth to further strengthen an develop my points in the essay. The section of this article that focused on Britain’s crime rates and gun control flowed effectively with other sources I found regarding the same information. They all highlighted on the fact that Britain has a very high violent crime rate, and very strict gun policies. Less guns equal more crime.

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