- Another look at the Claim Types list
- Claims defined and modeled using the article “Is PTSD Contagious?” as its subject matter.
- Link to the Lasik Surgery Claims Demonstration
- A lecture on claims that includes a chart for applying several claims types to your own hypothesis.
- Your Professor’s Model Definition Essay
- Attempts to answer the question, “Does polio belong to the category of eradicable diseases?”
- Model Definition/Categorical Essay
- The editors of the New York Times defines a crucial constitutional term: protected class that deserves heightened scrutiny.
37 thoughts on “09 TUE OCT 02”
– Mirror paradox: Mirrors do not flip images left to right at all. They reflect from the front to the back on the z plane. Pictures are the image other people see of ourselves.
– Claims are a part of the hypothesis. If you are looking for analogies or causes/effects, then you aren’t looking blindly for support.
– There are many types of claims that can be used in writing. They are basically topic sentences for the essay. Claims can be an analogy, can be categorical, define terms, they can evaluate a topic, casual claim, or etc. Each claim has their own argument.
– The dictionary could not be used for a definition claim or argument. A definition argument isn’t supposed to make the word the same for everyone, it is supposed to come across to the reader the way that you want it to. The reader is supposed to think about the real meaning of the claim.
– Some claims will overlap in writing. A claim can be two types of claims.
– Factual claims don’t necessarily mean that it is true. A factual statements can be false, but it still is a “factual” claim. They can still be called a factual claim, even if we don’t agree. It is just named after information having some sort of support or a situation as one person identifies as factual.
– An evaluative claim questions evidence that are presented in supposed facts. They are arguable and evaluate the quality of an argument. Is X good or bad? Is X a good Y?
– Ethical and moral claims have overlap. Ethical claims basically blame someone else for an issue or failure.
– A claim that is factual or evaluates a situation using reliable measurements are either quantitative, numerical, or comparative claim.
– 3000 word essay will be a persuasive proposal arguments. It is a fresh perspective and is telling the reader that they need to change their way of thinking. Proposal arguments are a call to action. The essay is telling us what should happen as a suggestion and consequences should follow if they don’t. Should we do X?
– Aristotle appealed are made to the audience using reason (logos), their emotion (pathos), and/or their sense of ethics (ethos).
– Toulmin made claims using the thesis as the first claim and followed it by smaller claims. He supported the with evidence and based his arguments on the values on which the argument rests, and rested them on backings.
– Rogers concentrated on finding areas of common evidence and solving shared problems. After finding agreeable evidence, he examined differences of opinion or misunderstandings. Then he compared recommended solutions and their limitations to find a resolve. He wanted to find out what the real disagreement is within an argument.
– Claims are assertions that are opened to challenge, even if they are not factual. Not all claims need to be proved, but some can be improved or changed. Claims that are readily accepted by your intended audience requires no proof. Claims to which no reader would likely to object can safely be made without proof.
– It is not the author’s responsibility to provide the reader with enough evidence to convince them. They can only provide better contrary facts and raise objections to the contrary facts. A single thought can be contrary to the stated facts. If the author’s evidence doesn’t have to be terrific to change an opinion, they just need some.
claims-It is in the details. ironically in trying to define the claim, it is important to understand what we “think” the author is trying to say, oh language.
Aren’t all claims just subsets of proposal claims? Anything can be rebuked and every claim is a suggestion if anything written is an argument.
basic claims type
use link to find definition and examples of multiple different type of claims authors use.
as you read other peoples work think about the different types of claims the writer uses. also think about different claims you use as writer and what you want to claim as you are writer.
*point of a definition claim is to make the term understandable the way you want your reader to understand it.
*factual claims can be false but it just claimed as facts
factual claims cannot be causal.
3000 word essay for class will be a proposal claim
claims are assertions open to challenge.
thesis is a claim that you intend to prove
not all claims need to be proven,
factual claims do not require “enough proof”
it’s not the authors responsibility to convince me they are right, I need to find factual evidence to refute the claim
be the calm voice in the argument also make sure you ask the right question and are having the correct argument
Discussed the mirror paradox, wherein we tried deciding which ways mirror flip things. Took another look at claims types in order to help us if we decide to go back and reinforce our knowledge on the different types of claims. Learned how to apply these types of claims correctly to our hypothesis so that it can potentially better our argument. Looked over the personal assessment worksheet that was shown to be helpful in our hypothesis essay as it allows one to “boost” the contents of a claim that a writer may have. I believe that this will definitely benefit my claims in order to make them as clear and well written as possible. Also looked at Professors’ 1000 word version of his hypothesis which helps us understand better ways to go about writing our own.
Started class with the mirror paradox.
The point of the claim is to make the reader understand it in the way you want them to understand. There may be a confusion by what we mean by factual. We do not mean true, we mean fact. Something that can be disputed. We may be able to call something a fact although we disagree with it.
Evaluative Claim tries to flavor facts.
– I can find the claims list on the date of Thursday, September 25 and Tuesday, October 2
– Factual claim doesn’t always mean it’s true to its evidence, it can easily be disputed
– Not all claims need to be proved, they go unnoticed and require no proof
– Claims that have no objection and is accepted by my intended audience does not need to be made with proof
– Make a chart of claims to analyze my argument to see what I could add
– Definitions don’t matter; it’s how you present the information to make the reader think
– A factual claim isn’t always true, they can still be disputed. factual claim means it appeals to evidence that is said to be true (ex. “the world is flat”).
– Evaluative claims are more arguable and are able to be supported and backed up.
– A persuasive research proposal is what we will be making
– Certain claims appeal to our reason, emotions, and ethics/character (logos, pathos, & ethos)
– Looked at different models of claim types (Aristotle, Toulmin, and Rogers)
– Toulmin Model: State thesis, which is the first claim. Support with grounds, which is the evidence. Warrants and backing??
**Not all claims need to be proved** “…as writers we need to be very aware of the types of claims we make and what sort of evidence—and how much—it will take to convince our readers that our claims are valid.”
– Refer to Lasik surgery example for claims example (categorical, definitional, causal, resemblance, evaluation, proposal)
– Do personal assessment
-Factual claims don’t have to necessarily be true. Claims that are factual have resources stating their claim is facts.
-Call to action referencing the argument. Suggest course of action “should,” “must,” “need.” Mild or strenuous suggestions.
-Factual claims can and will always be open to argument.
-Not the authors job to provide the reader with enough evidence to convince when making a factual claim, it is the readers job to find whats wrong with the argument and provide a single strong piece of evidence. Need just enough evidence.
-Know your audience when making an argument.
– Every definition argument is different. The main idea is to make the term understandable in the way one wants to use it in order to persuade the audience.
– Definition arguments do not have anything to do with the dictionary definition at all. A definition argument is more about analogies and categorical features of the argument itself.
– The uniqueness of our own perspectives is reflected on the way we present a definition argument in our papers.
– Factual statements can be false. They do not necessarily mean absolute truth. Factual claims are backed up by some kind of evidence.
– Evaluative claims blend the evidence gathering. These types of claims are arguable.
– The 3,000-word essay will be a proposal claim. It will be a persuasive research proposal that suggests a course of action.
– There are three primary philosophical approaches when making persuasive arguments. Logos, which is about logic and reason. Ethos, which is used as a bridge to connect the audience to our arguments using the power of credibility when developing our thesis. Pathos, which is about creating emotional effects on the audience.
– It is not the author’s responsibility to provide enough evidence to the audience. If we want to refute an argument, it is our job to look for evidence that make our arguments strong.
– Mirror doesn’t flip left to right, it flips front to back
– You no longer research blindly if you’re looking for an analogy
– A factual statement can be false
– 3,000 word essay will be a persuasive proposal claim
– Not all claims need to be proved
– Not the authors responsibility to provide enough evidence to convince the writer
– We don’t have the authority
– Don’t cite dictionary for definition claim
-Definition argument: to make the term understandable in the way you want to use it to produce effect.
-Analogy argument: similarities between things, could be different types of claims as well.
-Categorical claim: listing things in a certain category.
-Factual claim: not necessarily true, just a statement of fact. All factual claims can be disputed, it appeals to evidence that is said to be true and does not make any other types of claims.
-Evaluative claim: “flavor” facts by evaluating them and their legitimacy.
-Ethical or Moral claim: evaluative claim judging social situations based on morals and ethics.
-Numerical claim: involving numbers or amounts of things, could overlap with facial claim.
-Causal claim: something causes something else.
-Proposal claim: to convince audience to take part in course of action.
-Not all claims need to be proved.
Oct. 2 Notes
-The use of a definition claim makes the reader think and counteract what you are arguing. It can take the whole essay for a definition claim to be complete.
-Factual claim doesn’t necessary mean true. It is just a statement about fact. They can still be disputed. It appeals to evidence that is thought to be true.
-An evaluative claim tries to color facts by questioning the evidence that is presented.
-Proposal claim is when an author calls for action. This is what our 3,000 word essay is.
-Aristotle (Classical Model) appeals to reason (logos), emotions (pathos), and ethics (ethos). Never called anything claims.
-Toulmin made a big claim (thesis) followed by smaller claims, based on evidence.
-Rogers found common ground and solved shared problems.
-Claims are assertions that are open to challenge. Not all claims need to be proved.
-It is not the author’s responsibility to provide enough evidence and proof.
-We don’t base the quality of our argument based on our authority.
-Claims in a chart will help us in our writing process. We can see what claims we are lacking in our argument.
Something factual doesn’t have to be true just a statement that appears to be true.
Factual claim: Provide better contrary facts to prove the reader of the real truth instead of adding more evidence.
Proposal claim: Make the reader take action in your proposition.
Ethical and moral claim: to evaluate a situation with ethical or moral codes.
The 3000 essay will be persuasive proposal claim.
Not all claims have to be true or proven with evidence.
Use logos, pathos and ethos to approach the audience with emotions, creditability and logic.
• Mirror paradox: Mirrors do not flip images left to right ever, it flips images front to back. Pictures are the image that other people see of ourselves.
• One single sentence can contain many different claims.
• White paper first draft will prepare us for our long argument that is due 2 weeks from Thursday.
• Definition claim is a way of claiming the language, a dictionary is not needed for a definition essay. A dictionary definition is the last thing we want to use when describing our hypothesis.
• This is a performance class not a knowledge class. It is important to do something well rather than know something well. Skills class, “be able to type on the keyboard like it is a piano and not know how the keys work.” Professor Hodges stated.
• List of claims is located on agendas for September 25th and Tuesday October 2nd. Not all claims made need to be proved.
• Aristotle, Toulmin and Rogers all have their own model of argument. Aristotle: every good argument appeals to our pathos and ethos. Toulmin: made claims using the thesis as the first claim and followed it by smaller claims. Rogers: concentrated on finding areas of common evidence and solving shared problems.
• 3000 word essay is a research paper as well as a persuasive argument that contains a proposal of some sort.
• Claims in a chart will help us in our writing process. It will help us see what we are lacking.
There are similarities between categorial and definition claims. The remaining claims are posted on the webpage, which makes it redundant for me to take notes on.
Claims are assertions made with proof, but not all claims need to be proved. Recognize what’s at the basis of the argument. Craft your argument to a targeted audience. Know your audience. We also need to “attack” arguments that haven’t been brought up so that we can get to the root of the problem.
-Mirrors do not flip images left to right at all. They reflect from the front to the back. Pictures are the image other people see of ourselves.
– The use of a definition claim makes the reader think and counteract what you are arguing.
-A factual claim isn’t always true, they can still be disputed. factual claim means it appeals to evidence that is said to be true.
-analogy claim is the comparison of similarity between one topic and another.
-the definition claim is describing something.
-An evaluative claim tries to color facts by questioning the evidence that is presented.
-Causal claim is something causes something else.
-the ethical claims can be qualitative, evaluative, moral or ethical.
-causal claim is basically a causes and effect claims.
-the 3000 words essay is going to be a proposal claim.
-the model definition essay depends on the way of claiming language which is used.
-our own definition essay is the last thing on which we want to depend on.
-we should Know who our audience is, when making an argument.
-Aristotle appeals to his audience about reasons (logos), emotions (pathos), ethics (ethos).
-Toulmin made claim by supporting them with grounds, based on warrants and which hence turns on backing.
-not all claims are needed to be proved.
-the unstated claims often go by unnoticed.
– the claims in which the readers would be likely to object can be made without
-bringing more evidences or proof to a table, we can actually win an argument.
•Definition claims are not unusful in causal/definition essays.
• In this class student have to do well but not explaining well. Showing a skill and performance.
• Moral and Ethical claims should be considered in essays.
• Aristotle provided us with logos, pathos and ethos.
• Claims don’t have to be always proven for audeance who’s already believe you.
• we have to come up with a claim that is related to a particular argument.
Arguments are used to decide where claims belong. Definitions, categorical, and the other claims have a lot of overlap. Factual claims are still factual even if they can be proven wrong.
The three models of arguments are Aristotle, Toulmin, and Rogers. Aristotle is the classical argument that appeals to ones ethos, logos, and pathos. The Toulmin model has to do with making claims and backing them up definitely. Rogers model does not have to do with winning, but rather resolving differences.
Claims don’t require proof is they are unnoticed, or if the intended audience doesn’t need proof.
In order to dispute insufficient evidence, just provide something better. Something always beats out nothing.
Audiences should be specific, and needs be more than “all readers” or “America”. Arguments shouldn’t just be tailored to a specific audience, they should also be tailored to the concerns of that audience.
Mirrors are some crazy stuff. They flip front to back not left to write. Professor Hodges goes over the different types of claims listed with the PTSD assignment. Use the claims chart for part of your argument to improve it. Background on arguments: Aristotle, Toulmin, and Carl Rogers. Not all claims need to be proved. Lasik eye surgery is not covered by insurance companies. Amanda’s mom is concerned about the side effects. Amanda starts to make categorical claims to refute her mothers concerns. Chart full of Amanda’s claims. Check out the empty chart and try to fill it in. First 1,000 words is due in 2 weeks. Example definition essay by davidbdale. Left no time for questions.
-we had a pleasant conversation about cartoons before class. A nice way to start off the day, I think.
-mirror talk is confusing me, but half of it, I think, is that I’m still sick and slightly woozy.
-Analogy claims compare two things, but you must first find a way to compare them correctly instead of making an analogy of apples and desks.
-claims can intermingle and arguments can use several different kinds of claims within one sentence.
-this is a performance class, not a knowledge class.
-factual claims do not have to be true.
-Evaluative claims are “quality judgments.”
-ethical or moral claims depend on what “people DESERVE”, as what people deserve is a ethical matter.
-my notes aren’t going to be the best today. I should probably head to the wellness center.
-I remember logos, pathos, and ethos from junior year of high school. I spent a fair amount of time on that and wrote an analyzing paper on it. I got a 4 on the AP test, but it only counted as a free credit.
-reminder for myself: logos is reason, pathos is emotions, and ethos is ethics, character, and authority.
-Toulmin Model- made by Stephen Toulmin, who argued to win. Claims, started by the thesis, with grounds (or evidence), based arguments on warrants (the values in which the argument rests), which rest on backing (which is entirely unclear). Most textbooks lose readers somewhere between grounds and backing.
-Carl Rogers created the Rogerian Model, which depended on coming to a consensus on his arguments. He found areas of common ground and shared problems to solve, and recommended solutions and limitations were compared and added ways to resolve differences.
-unstated claims do not require proof.
-claims that would not be disputed do not have to be proved.
-proof is necessary for backing up an argument that others would disagree with. If there’s no disagreement, there’s no need to show proof, or argue, for that matter.
-proposal claims appeal to Aristotle’s Classical Model (logos, pathos, and ethos).
-all claims are necessary for a good argument. Leaving out a sort of claim will weaken an argument.
-check the chart for “Claims I’ve Made In My Paper So Far” for writing papers for class.
-definitions are necessary for phrases that need defining, but not a dictionary definition.
Not the best I’ve seen from you, but still exemplary, as evidenced by this gem of a Note:
Feel better, thokeca. Come back stronger.
A factual claim does not have to be true. It is just a claim trying to say what is.
Claims could belong to multiple groups of claims.
We discussed what makes a claim.
In the chart discussed in class we looked into models of an argument
3 things Aristotle used was
ethics, character, and authority (ethos)
Toulmin makes claims backed in facts so that they cannot be counter argued.
Rogers concentrated on finding a middle ground between opposing sides and after finding where we agree, he examined differences of opinion.
Claims don’t always need to be proven. The audience could already believe these claims. The author could be preaching to the choir.
The author has no obligation to meet the quota of enough proof. There’s no conversation between the author and the reader.
Amanda wants lasik
Audience: Mom and the insurance company
Her arguments need to make the following claims:
Lasik is safe
Lasik is safe for 20 year olds
She falls in line with safe Lasik procedures
The dad remembers the old scalpel procedure
Now she needs to address that that procedure is discredited and Lasik is technology proven.
Claims need to be relevant to the audience or else they won’t stick.
Prove to your audience that a problem exists
The second section proposes a solution to the problem
The third section justifies the solution
The fourth section explains the inherent rightness of the solution
Definitions can’t always help your essay. It’s the ability to capture all different forms of religious, socioeconomic, geographic, and political aspects of the claim.
Nice work, Eagles.
I was going to deduct a point for this “talked about” language, which, by the way, should NEVER appear in your summaries or essays:
But then you redeemed yourself with this little gem, and others:
*White paper summary is due Thursday.
*We see mirror images differently, we see the picture one way, and it is also being seen a different way from the model’s point of view.
*There can be several claims from one sentence.
*A factual claim could be false.
*If categorical claims are never made, your point won’t be valid when trying to win an argument.
*Making a chart of the claims can help when trying to prove an argument.
*3 models of an argument are Classical (Aristotelian), Toulmin and Rogerian.
*In 2 weeks first short argument will be due!
Good enough, Mugga.
THE MIRROR PARADOX
Mirrors appear to change things from right to left and from left to right, but they aren’t actually. What is on your left will always be on your left, for example, a wedding ring, though it may appear you are looking at it on your right.) The only flipping in a mirror is front to back .
– *Do not have to be proven to make a point *
– Are open to challenge
-Base argument on assesing claims
– The more evidence you have the better in the case of speaking to a new audience and not the choir
-Each different group you approach you will make different claims to. *Lasik Eye Surgery Claims Demonstration* KEEP THAT IN MIND
-You will need to use different claim types appropriatley on your research paper to keep your argument focused.
“Research Proposal Argument” = 3000 word paper
Advocate for something new
Explore all aspects of hypothesis
Make new claims
DEFINITION ARGUMENT ESSAY
-An argument in disguise.
-Provides facts that are up for debate
-Must show relevence to the real world
Solid Notes all around, Namaste. Earns the extra point for this bit of eloquence:
-Dictionary definitions aren’t useful in a definition essay, define your own claims and ideas
-Definition arguments go far beyond a definition claim
-In many arguments, various types of claims overlap
-You need a variety of claims to make a persuasive argument
-Not all claims need to be proved, unstated claims or claims that are easily accepted by the audience don’t require proof
Aristotle- ethos, pathos, logos
Toulmin- claims supported by evidence and backing
Rogers- finding areas of common ground, examines difference of opinion and compares different solutions
In refuting insufficient proof, you must present a better argument/provide better proof
When writing your essay, think about who you want your audience to be
-Check you’ve addressed many of the types of claims. Certain claims apply more to certain audiences.
-For a definition essay, keep categorical claims in mind. Is x like y?
Proposal arguments usually follow the problem/solution/justification process, usually including ethos, pathos, and logos points
Very nice Notes, Alpaca.
-sentences can hold many different claims
-2 weeks from now is 1000-word argument is definition essay
-don’t use a dictionary definition for your definition essay
-definition claim is x equals y
-analogy claims help readers understand something they aren’t familiar with something they are familiar with
-Factual claim doesn’t have to true. It can be arguable. It is stating a fact, even if they aren’t true, which would be errors
-evaluative claims are quality judgments
-ethical and moral claims can overlap with evaluative claims
-Aristotle showed that arguments use logos, ethos, and pathos to help the audience understand an argument
-3000-word essay will be a research paper and a persuasive argument that will make a proposal. “time to take another look at this” or “I have another idea to share, you have the wrong idea, change your way of thinking”. Or “we know what is going on here, so we need to do something different”. Advocate for new changes.
-Toulmin- state thesis, make claims, back them up with evidence, and they all rest on a value system. Can be fuzzy and confusing. Claims and models assess claims
-Rogers wanted to resolve differences.
-not all claims need to be proved, it’s not the author’s obligation if you’re not the intended audience. To convince an audience, however, that doesn’t already agree with you, the more evidence the better
-what sorts of arguments do we need to refute that we don’t already know is in our readers minds?
-consequential problems show readers that you have an idea and show the audience that there’s a cause to the problem. Does x cause y
-definition essays are arguments, not from the dictionary, terms need to be identified
-categorical essay includes different types of considerations of your thesis
Extraordinarily good Notes, BeachGirl6.
This in particular impressed me:
-Think about the claims you are making when writing the paper
-Everybody’s argument is different for a definition argument/claim
-Dictionary is not for arguments/claims
-Factual claim can be false(disputable)
-Evaluative claim questions evidence, arguably, be supported by evidence
-Causal claim has a cause and effect
-Recommendation/Proposal claim suggests a course of action
-Not all claims need to be proved
-Categorical claim: Is X a Y?
-Definitional claim: What is a Y?
-Consequential claim: Does X cause Y?
-Resemblance claim: Is X like Y?
-Evaluation claim: Is X good or bad? Is X a good Y?
-Proposal claim: Should we do X?
-Don’t use the dictionary or cite it
-Is an argument
-Defining terms(not the dictionary definition)
Very nice, Flowers.
Model definition essay: Way of claiming language.
Your own dictionary definition is the last thing you want to depend on.
Lots of overlap in claims categories.
Types of claims:
Definition claim – This is that. Describing what something is.
Analogy claim – Claiming the similarity of one thing to another. Helps Readers understand what something is by comparing it to something known.
Categorical claim – “X belongs to the category of Y” In arguments we are trying to decide what categories things fit in to.
Factual claim – A claim of what is. Being right or wrong does not matter. There are qualitative claims (opinion based). Such things as untrue factual claims.
Evaluative claims – Looks at situations, statements made by others, and actions of others. Overlaps with comparative claims. Quantitative and ethical evaluation.
Ethical claim – Can be qualitative evaluative moral or ethical.
Causal Claim – Cause and effect claim.
“Doctors, much less civilians, don’t understand.”
Doctors have this higher level knowledge than civilians. However the civilians are experiencing the effects of PTSD so they should know more from firsthand experience. We should not be placing too much value in the knowledge of civilians when doctors should know more. Makes this claim.
Models of argument:
Aristotle: Every good argument appeals to reason, emotions, and to ethics, character, and authority.
Toulmin: Make claims backed up with evidence. Rest on a value system. Turtles on turtles.
Rogers: Focused on finding areas of common ground and figuring out shared problems.
Not all claims need to be proved:
Unstated claims often go unnoticed and require no proof.
Claims to which no readers would be likely to object can be made without proof.
Claims that would be readily accepted by your intended audience requires no evidence.
Winning arguments can be as simply as bringing more “evidence” to the table.
Argument on Lasik eye surgery:
First section convinces her parents that a problem exists (Aristotle’s pathos).
Second section proposes the solution to the problem (Logos).
Last section justifies the solution by demonstrating that the benefits outweigh the costs (Logos).
The “rightness” of the solution on moral or ethical grounds compels action (Ethos).
Extraordinarily good Notes, KB.
Class Notes: 10/2/18
– Make sure to make an appointment
– Casual vs. Causal, common mistake by students
– Future 1000mword essay assignment (Definition/Categorical Argument)
– A definition claim is your own factual explanation not just what a dictionary says
– A factual claim can be false, it’s always just a statement of “fact”. It has to appeal to evidence that is known to be true.
A factual claim doesn’t actually have to appeal to evidence at all. No claim has to.
“Jesus was a Capricorn” is a factual claim (a claim of fact) whether Jesus was born under the sign of Capricorn or he wasn’t.
It’s only a TRUE claim if the fact is true, but even if wrong, it’s still a factual claim (as distinguished from a causal claim or a rebuttal claim).
Of course a factual claim CAN appeal to evidence. It can be followed immediately by evidence, or preceded by evidence.