- Bloomfield, Sally F., PhD, BPharm, & Scott, Elizabeth A., PhD, MPhil. (2013). A risk assessment approach to use of antimicrobials in the home to prevent spread of infection.AJIC: American Journal of Infection Control, 41(5), S87-S93. doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2013.01.001
Background: The article provides information regarding efficacy of hand washing vs. using hand sanitizers. Four different hand sanitizers were evaluated on their antimicrobial efficacy on various bacteria.
How I Used it: This article provided background knowledge on hand-sanitizers and how they differ from one another. The comparison of hand sanitizers vs. hand washing was useful when determining best practices for hand hygiene.
- McKenna, Maryn, (2014) Drugs:Gut Response. Nature Publishing group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved. Naturevolume508, pages182–183. Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/articles/508182a
Background: This article discusses antibiotic resistant bacteria. The article provides background information for the creation of the first antibiotic as well as a warning from the creator of penicillin in regard to resistance becoming an issue.
How I Used it: I cited directly from the warning given by Alexander Flemming about resistant bacteria. I also used the background information to provide information about how poor health practiced are contributing to resistant bacteria.
- Bloomfield, Sally F., PhD, BPharm, & Scott, Elizabeth A., PhD, MPhil. (2013). A risk assessment approach to use of antimicrobials in the home to prevent spread of infection. AJIC: American Journal of Infection Control, 41(5), S87-S93. doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2013.01.001 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196655313000217
Background: This article describes best practice for home hygiene, including appropriate products to use and when to use them. Also discusses the importance of home hygiene in preventing illness.
How I Used it: This article was used to help define appropriate home hygiene and describe some best practice solutions for preventing illness. Also aided in an describing the relationship between hygiene and resistant bacteria and how one influences the other.
- T. (2006). Hand Hygiene. Infection Control Today. Retrieved from https://www.infectioncontroltoday.com/hand-hygiene/hand-hygiene-0?nck=1.
Background: This article provides information about hand washing in hospitals. The article also discusses implications of antimicrobials found in home cleaning products and the effect they have on resistant bacteria. Provides facts about the number of antimicrobials found in cleaning products now vs. years past.
How I Used it: I used this article to identify problems with antimicrobials in household cleaning products and describe why these should be avoided. This supported an argument about appropriate hygiene reducing the likely hood of creating resistant bacteria.
- Aiello, A. E., & Larson, E. (2003). Antibacterial cleaning and hygiene products as an emerging risk factor for antibiotic resistance in the community. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 3(8), 501-506. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(03)00723-0
Background: This article emphasizes the issues surrounding a cleaning product called triclosan. The article demonstrates a need for further research into household cleaning products containing the chemical triclosan.
How I Used it: I used this article as a source for background information on hygiene products containing triclosan and the effects this chemical has on household cleaning products efficacy. In addition this source as a view of overall household hygiene as well as additional information on antibiotic resistant bacteria.
- Davies, J., & Davies, D. (2010). Origins and evolution of antibiotic resistance. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 74(3), 417-433. doi:10.1128/MMBR.00016-10
Background: This article shows the increase in antibiotic resistance and that there is a need for continued research into alternative treatment measures.
How I Used it: I used this article as a source for alternative approaches to reducing antibiotic resistance and as another example for why we need additional research on the topic.
- Nordqvist, Christian. “Antibiotics: Uses, Resistance, and Side Effects.” Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 25 July 2018, medicalnewstoday.com/articles/10278.php.
Background: This article provides basic information on how antibiotics work, when and why they are used.
How I used it: I used this article to gain basic information on how antibiotics work, why they are used, and when it is appropriate to use them. I used the information gained to explain these concepts.
- Witte, W. (1998). Medical consequences of antibiotic use in agriculture. Science, 279(5353), 996-997.
Background: This article provides information on how the use of antibiotics in agriculture affects people in terms of antibiotic resistance and other medical issues.
How I used it: I used this article for an argument regarding the misuse of antibiotics in agriculture. The information found in this article shows that there is a consequence to antibiotic use in agriculture which aided in my position that we are overusing antibiotics.
- Bren, L. (2006). Overprescription of Antibiotics Has Led to Resistant Bacteria. In A. Hiber (Ed.), At Issue. Are Americans Overmedicated? Detroit, MI: Greenhaven Press. (Reprinted from FDA Consumer, 2003, September) Retrieved from http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/EJ3010471213/OVIC?u=rowan&sid=OVIC&xid=04a2ea06
Background: This article discusses antibiotic resistance and the history of occurrences. Antibiotic development has become stagnant. Also discussed in ways to preserve the effectiveness of existing antibiotics.
How I used it: Directly quoted this argument as a source for expert opinion on the dangers of overusing antibiotics. Analyzed claims and gained factual information about development of antibiotics necessary for providing a compelling argument against the manipulation of current antibiotics.
- Triggle, N. (2013). Overprescription of antibiotics is a ‘ticking time-bomb’: Chief medical officer points out that cancer patients are at increased risk of infections. nick triggle reports. Cancer Nursing Practice, 12(3), 6-7. doi:10.7748/cnp2013.04.12.3.6.p10926
Background: Journal article discussing the current state of danger in overusing antibiotics. Article quotes Chief Medical Officer in the UK and her warning that it is a “ticking time bomb.” Also discussed is the increased susceptibility cancer patients have to antibiotic resistant bacteria.
How I used it: Directly quotes Sally Davies, the chief medical officer in the UK. I used her quote as a warning and an example of why we need to address policy rather then drugs in regards to reducing or slowing down the rate at which antibiotic resistant bacteria are forming.
- Coates, A. R. M. (2012;2014;). Antibiotic resistance (1. Aufl. ed.). Heidelberg;New York;: Springer. https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.rowan.edu/book/10.1007%2F978-3-642-28951-4
Background: Book source providing an in depth look at antibiotic resistance, the history of resistance, various functions of antibiotics etc. Antibiotic resistance is nothing new.
How I used it: Quoted directly a passage pertaining to history of antibiotics and they existence of resistance since their invention. This added to the argument that we need to address misuse of antibiotics.
- Chakradhar, S. (2016). What’s old is new: Reconfiguring known antibiotics to fight drug resistance. Nature Medicine, 22(11), 1197-1199. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm1116-1197
Background: Article proposes that the answer to antibiotic resistance is by “reconfiguring” existing antibiotics. Specifically discussed is the use of a potentiator to add to the efficacy of existing antibiotics.
How I used it: This article was used as the counter argument for my Rebuttal section of the essay. I argue that it is necessary we address policy and misuse of antibiotics rather than spending money and time on new antibiotics that if misused will still lead to resistance.
- Shlaes, D. M. (2010). Antibiotics: The perfect storm (1st;1; ed.). New York;Dordrecht;: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-9057-7 https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-90-481-9057-7
Background: This book discusses antibiotic history as well as development and proposals for solving resistance problems. One section “the Miracle” provides a detailed history of treatments for bacterial infection, including arsenic and heavy metal compounds.
How I used it: I used it to emphasize the importance of the discovery of antibiotics to set a tone for why it is equally important to address resistance.
- Brian N Tse, Amesh A Adalja, Christopher Houchens, Joseph Larsen, Thomas V Inglesby, Richard Hatchett; Challenges and Opportunities of Nontraditional Approaches to Treating Bacterial Infections, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 65, Issue 3, 1 August 2017, Pages 495–500, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix320
Background: Discusses different approaches to fighting bacterial infections. Provides a detailed analysis of advantages vs disadvantages of various “nontraditional approaches. “
How I used it: I used this as a source for identifying different approaches to antibiotic resistance and how these approaches varied in efficacy.