Bibliography- Alpacaqueen

  1. Whitmore, M. (2017, October 03). Advantages & Disadvantages of Organic Foods. Retrieved from https://www.livestrong.com/article/442122-advantages-disadvantages-of-organic-foods/

Background: This article discusses the many advantages and disadvantages of organic foods. It provides reasoning against going organic in discussing the increased cost of organic foods, the decrease in productivity per acre that comes with farming organically, the increase in time and skill that is required for organic farming with less output of produce, along with other points. A few of the main points it discusses is how organic foods require more land and produce a lower yield than other crops but are produced with no synthetic fertilizers.

How I used it: This article proved to be a good insight for organic food knowledge. It acts as a good baseline to demonstrate the many negative aspects of organic food. It provides points that I will be able to further expand upon with more research. Besides stating the cons that affect the environment, the economy, and the consumer today, it also gives insight on what may happen with the growing popularity of organic food. As organic food becomes more and more popular, although prices may decrease, farms will use a much greater deal of fossil fuels and rules will become more and more lenient on what is considered “organic”. It gave me good points I could use to persuade readers about the disadvantages of organic foods but also exposed me to the opposing side as well by providing information about the benefits of organic foods which I could later use for refutation. This article proved to be a good example of a non-bias article because it provided information from both sides of the argument.

2. Wager, R., Popoff, M., & Moore, P. (2018, January 12). Organics versus GMO: Why the debate? Retrieved from https://geneticliteracyproject.org/2013/10/15/organics-versus-gmo-why-the-debate/

Background: This article focuses on the advantages of adopting crop biotechnology and GMOs into the food markets as opposed to organic foods. A large portion of the article is spent questioning why anti-gmo activists are so opposed to such an idea. It provides reasoning that with the introduction of more GM foods and advancements of new genetic farming techniques, benefits will be presented in the realm of human health and the environment.

How I used it: This article provides a lot of backing on the advantages of focusing our energy into producing GMO foods and advancements in crop biotechnology. For example, GMO crops are being engineered that fix their own nitrogen. As a result of this, massive amounts of energy would be conserved by “eliminating the natural gas used in synthesizing ammonium nitrate and the fuel burned in trucks that deliver that fertilizer to farms.” Additionally, these genetically altered crops have the potential to save lives. In 1998, a GMO, golden rice, was made in response to a vitamin A deficiency causing hundreds of thousands of children to go blind in developing countries. Although this rice was made to reverse that, the environmental organization Greenpeace denied its distribution based on the claim it may pose “environmental and health risks”. As the author mentions, there is no way that the risk could be more than the one these thousands of children are facing.

3. Aubrey, A., & Charles, D. (2012, September 04). Why Organic Food May Not Be Healthier For You. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2012/09/04/160395259/why-organic-food-may-not-be-healthier-for-you

Background: This article discusses how there have been no studies that have proven any real health benefits in eating organic versus non-organic. The article suggests that organic food may be better in other ways, but it all comes down to what the farmers are being paid and how much the consumers are willing to pay.

How I used it: Essentially, this article showed me how consumers are paying extra for organics just for the name, or the idea that its healthier. The article pointed to many studies in which no real difference in health was found between eating organic versus non-organic foods. Although the author claims that organic foods are better in different aspects, like using compost instead of synthetic fertilizer to grow the crops, it’s been suggested that the compost, containing animal manure, is far more likely to lead to sickness that crops treated with the synthetic fertilizer. Instead of “organic” labeling, it is suggested that produce will be measured and described based on its levels of vitamins or protein.

  1. Gasparro, A., & Newman, J. (2018, October 03). Six Technologies That Could Shake the Food World. Retrieved from https://www.wsj.com/articles/six-technologies-that-could-shake-the-food-world-1538532480?mod=searchresults&page=1&pos=4

Background: This article discusses the differences in pesticide amounts and use in organic and non-organic foods. It goes on to discuss how it may affect our health or that of farmers.

How I used it: This article provided me with a lot of information on how organic versus non-organic food affects human health. It made it clear that, although organic foods contain lower levels of pesticides in them than non-organic, the pesticide levels very rarely have any negative effect on a person’s health. The only two extreme terms would be if two toxic residues crossed, which the EPA has yet to test for every combination of chemicals, or if farmers were exposed to these chemicals very heavily over a long period of time, which they aren’t. Residues in these pesticides are found in very low levels when farming.

  1. 5 Big Biotech Breakthroughs. (2015, February 5). Retrieved from https://croplife.org/news/5-big-biotech-breakthroughs/

Background: This article discusses the differences in pesticide amounts and use in organic and non-organic foods. It goes on to discuss how it may affect our health or that of farmers.

How I used it: This article showed me a grand scale of what going organic is really costing humanity as a whole. Because of the strict methods of farming organically, much less is produced per acre of land than that of non-organic food. As the article mentions, “to produce the amount of food America does today, but organically, would require increasing its farmland by the size of almost two United Kingdoms.” Not only this, but the piece goes on to mention how some of the pesticides such as copper sulfate used in organic foods can still be linked to things such as liver disease in consumers and leukemia in farmers who handle such pesticides. The article adds that organic farming comes with a price tag- and a very big one at that. Essentially, it states, “If all of the United States were to go organic, the cost would likely be around $200 billion annually” just from lack of productivity. This does not even take the additional fees into account such as the higher price required to farm organically or the amount of land required.

  1. Gilpin, L. (2014, May 13). 10 ways technology is changing our food. Retrieved from https://www.techrepublic.com/article/10-ways-technology-is-changing-our-food/

Background: This article discusses the many ways in which technology is playing a role in food production and transportation. It focused on developments made in the field of technology to do things such as reduce food waste, track droughts, and digitally print food.

How I used it: This article exposed me to a variety of different ways in which the food industry is being propelled forward as a result of new technology. It provided information on how even social media is playing a role in reducing food waste by forming apps for restaurants to post listings of leftover food at a reduced price. It also discussed a technology that has been around for a while but still proves effective, stating how GPS tracking helps farmers observe soil levels and determine weather patterns to better prepare the crops. Although this wasn’t directly related to my paper concerning technology that produces food, it still provided an abundance of information.

  1. Shontell, A. (2016, June 28). A Brooklyn startup that’s armed with $40 million is growing real leather in a lab without hurting a single animal. Retrieved from https://www.businessinsider.com/modern-meadow-lab-grown-leather-2016-6

Background: This article is based off of a company who is growing leather in a lab without harming any animals. It grows leather using skin cells that produce collagen, which over the course of a few weeks turns into leather.

How I used it: This article showed me how 3D food printing could play a massive role in the future if food technology. The company stated how it is looking towards developing a way to print meatless meat, which would not only reduce carbon emissions but open a whole new door for vegetarians and the meat industry. This provided me with a great example of how food technology is working towards aiding the environment and decreased animal slaughter.

  1. Phillips, T. (2018, August 26). How Has Food Biotechnology Changed What We Eat? Retrieved from https://www.thebalance.com/food-biotechnology-375627

Background: This article gave a lot of insight on the different ways in which biotech foods are solving a variety of issues in the world. It focused on biotech’s roles in aiding the environment, human health, and reducing waste.

How I used it: This article provided me with a few points I was able to address that demonstrate how biotech foods are here to help. It displayed how scientists are modifying crops to have increased nutritional value, such as tomatoes made to have high levels of lycopene, which could help lower cholesterol levels, or how vegetable oils are being modified to contain less fatty acids that clog arteries.

  1. Manager, C. (2017, May 15). GMOs & The Environment. Retrieved from https://gmoanswers.com/gmos-environment

Background: This article discussed an abundance of ways in which GMOs are actually coming to the aid of the environment. It emphasizes how gmo foods require less land than organic foods and produce a greater yield. It provided the astonishing statistic that, Between 1996 and 2015, crop biotechnology was responsible for an additional 180.3 million tons of soybeans, 357.7 million tons of corn, 25.2 million tons of cotton lint and 10.6 million tons of canola, without having to bring more land into production.”

How I used it: This article came to my benefit when discussing how GMO foods help the environment. Because GMO foods require less land and produce a greater yield, a variety of benefits come along with it such as reduced tractor carbon emissions and conserving water and pesticides.

10. Haspel, T. (2014, October 27). The GMO debate: 5 things to stop arguing. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/food/the-gmo-debate-5-things-to-stop-arguing/2014/10/27/e82bbc10-5a3e-11e4-b812-38518ae74c67_story.html?utm_term=.0685b16218f7

Background: This article debunked a few of the major misconceptions around GMOs. It focuses on areas such as GMOs’ affect on health, their safety, who they affect, and people’s premises for being for/against GMOs.

How I used it: This article gave me a better understanding how unlikely it is that GMOs may pose as a threat to human health. Even after one study looked at the health data of over 100 billion found no difference in the animals’ health after switching from non-GMO to GMO feed. It also discusses the argument that GMOs only benefit big agriculture businesses, which is proven to be very untrue considering GMOs are being made to help the human population in general from providing greater health benefits and environment-friendly techniques.

11. GMO Facts. (n.d.). Retrieved October 31, 2018, from https://www.nongmoproject.org/gmo-facts/

Background: This brief piece comes from the Non-Gmo Project’s website. It discusses what a GMO is, its safety, and impact on the environment. It additionally addresses the countries in which GMOs are labeled and some of their major impacts.

How I used it: This source proved to be a good reference of some of the negative effects of GMOs which I could later try to refute in my refutation essay. Some of the major points it discussed is how many GMOs have been modified to resist herbicides, causing an increase in herbicide spraying or how some crops are responsible for creating bugs that can now only be killed by very strong chemicals. It showed a new side to GMOs that I was not originally exposed to.

12. What Are the benefits of GMOs, Both Today and in the Future? (n.d.). Retrieved October 31, 2018, from http://www.fooddialogues.com/article/benefits-gmos-today-future/

Background: In this article, it discusses the benefits of GMOs for both the producers and consumers, which additionally include benefits to the environment and the future of GMOs. Some of these benefits include decreased water use, crop drought and disease resistance, and enhanced nutrients.

How I used it: This article showed me how GMOs can be beneficial in a variety of areas, for both now and the future. It allowed me to better understand its benefits in these areas, such as produce being engineered to resist bruising and browning, which could also reduce a great amount of food waste. It even gave an insight to the future behind GMOs, as it even discussed how scientists are looking to produce a hypoallergenic peanut, which could be the start of a new palette for restricted eaters.

13. ModernAg. (2018, October 18). Searching for the Same Solution. Retrieved from https://modernag.org/innovation/gmo-solutions-benefit-environment/

Background: In this article, it addresses the many ways in which GMOs are helping the environment. These include reducing greenhouse gas emissions, keeping crops immune from disease, and helping those in developing nations

How I used it: This article exposed me to some environmental benefits of GMOs that I had not previously heard of. One major point was how GMOs are helping more than just Americans. In South Africa, GM corn was the source of increased yields, income, and eliminated the need for labor intensive exercises.

14. Fucile, Q. (2015, April 02). Is Genetically Modified Food Safe? Retrieved from http://www.sciencetimes.com/articles/5299/20150402/is-genetically-modified-food-safe.htm

Background: This article discusses the safety and benefits behind GM foods. It claims how GMOs are time and time again proven safe for human consumption, and would most likely only have a negative affect on our health if food somehow produced a protein that was toxic to humans.

How I used it: One particular thing I found interesting that this article showed me is GMOs impact on biodiversity. This was discussed in the article after it claimed that some crops are being engineered so that they only kill bugs and insects that try to actively feed on the crop and protecting other species since the crops no longer have to be sprayed with pesticides since its built into their genes.

  1. Gasparro, A., & Newman, J. (2018, October 03). Six Technologies That Could Shake the Food World. Retrieved from https://www.wsj.com/articles/six-technologies-that-could-shake-the-food-world-1538532480?mod=searchresults&page=1&pos=4

Background: In this article, it discusses different biotech foods that are being developed to reduce food waste or machines that allow you 3D print food to your exact taste. This would allow people to take control of their diet like never before and make foods with the exact measurements and ingredients that they crave.

How I used it: This article exposed me to new technologies being created regarded the food industry that I had never heard of before. One subject that really drew in my attention was how an algae grown in the small pools in deserts could be a new source for food growth. This land that has been unused for years can now be put to use to grow this algae, which is rich in nutrients and being incorporated in a variety of foods.

 

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