Original Source Research

“He who can go to the fountain
does not go to the water-jar.”

                                                           —Leonardo da Vinci

I have more respect for Leonardo than for any other curious human I’ve ever heard of. He may have been the most restless investigator of all. Kenneth Clark called him “the most relentlessly curious man in history.” He was also weird, surpassingly weird, in his interests, which were as wide and unexpected as the limits of imagination.

His notebooks were filled with observations, math equations, drawings of sawed-open skulls, of severed arteries, of water eddies, of explosions and flying machines, full also of to-do lists that chronicle his boundless curiosity. Walter Isaacson collected some samples from one day’s entry:

Measure Milan and its suburbs.
Get the master of arithmetic to show you
how to square a triangle.
Ask Giannino the Bombardier
about how the tower of Ferrara is walled.
Describe the tongue of a woodpecker.
Ask Benedetto Protinari by what means
they walk on ice in Flanders.
Get a master of hydraulics to tell you how to
repair a lock, canal and mill in the Lombard manner.
Go every Saturday to the hot bath where
you will see naked men.
Observe the goose’s foot; if it were always open
or always closed the creature would not be able
to make any kind of movement.
Draw Milan.
Get the measurement of the sun promised me by
Maestro Giovanni Francese, the Frenchman.”

What I hope you’ll notice and find inspiring is that Leonardo took nothing for granted, cultivated sources that would provide him the information he sought, and prized most of all his own observations or the direct testimony of other keen observers.

Leonardo Water
from Leonardo’s notebook

He went to the fountain,
not to the water-jar.

When Google leads you to a magazine article that says, “The study concluded that the earth is not actually getting warmer,” you’re drinking from the water-jar. You can either trust Coalminer Times, or you can be like Leonardo. Follow the lead back to the fountain. Find the study that did the testing and tracked the temperatures and drew the conclusions. See for yourself what conclusions they drew.

Are they the same conclusions Coalminer Times reported them to be? Who conducted the study? Who financed it? Was it someone interested in tracking the earth’s temperature? Or was it someone interested in promoting coal?

If the study turns out to be a collection of other people’s opinions, you’ve found the tank from which the jars were filled. Keep looking. The world is full of water tanks and water jars tainted with water from suspect sources. And very few fountains.


Isaacson, W. (2018). Leonardo Da Vinci. New York: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks.


Visual Rehtoric Rewrite- wildwood

End Family Fire

0:00 – 0:02

The video opens up on a cartoon train, one that looks like on a child television show. The camera frame is just the cartoon, so the viewer does not know whether or not the show is the entire video or if it is in fact a television show, even though it shows a glare. Then on the next second of the video, it shows a child, a little boy in pajamas, and what is assumed is his father. The director is trying to have an emotional play to families, if a father is watching this ad it is extremely relatable. The middle-class is the most populated class in the country, meaning there is a reasonable chance that a middle-class father is watching this ad. His father is wearing boots, jeans and a long-sleeved shirt, meaning he could be going to work or coming from work. Again, the working class dominates this country and that is more relatable. It does appear to be morning due to the child in pajamas and the sun looks like it is rising. The son could be watching his morning cartoons. The house is clean and well kept, besides the toys on the ground, it appears as a normal middle-class suburban household. The couch cushion in on the ground which seems odd, and there is a normal pillow sitting on top of it. Could mean the father slept there last night, or the young boy sits there and watches his morning cartoons. The whole first two seconds are extremely relatable with a normal middle-class family and targets the emotional side of the viewer. A wife could see that as her husband and son, a father could see that as him and his son. The lighting is bright, causing the viewers to feel at ease and comfortable with the setting. If the lighting was dim and the sun was not out, it could give the viewer an uneasy feeling.

0:02 – 0:05

Father in a collar shirt, it is in fact daytime because there are windows in the background. Dad is clean shaven and could be headed to work. He suprised his son and started playing with him as he was watching cartoons. The pillow on the ground indicates some sort of family disfunction. The father could be sleeping on the couch because his significant other and him are going through a rough patch in the relationship. Families in America fight and that thought just makes the scene more relatable. Did not observe any family pictures either on the television stand or hanging up in the dining room, leads the viewer to believe the house is more sterile than it appears with the toys laying out on the floor. Although the boy seems to be loved from the affection he is being shown from his father and the endless number of toys he has, no family pictures signifies a sterile house like feel instead of a warm welcoming home.

0:05 – 0:09

The father got off his child, he said goodbye. Father must be preparing for work for the day. Smaller skateboard by the door, probably the boys skateboard. Only one skateboard so more than likely an only child or a much older or younger sibling.

0:09 – 0:12

The boy lays on the floor after his father walks away and seems like he is pondering something. Possibly wanting to ask the father a question, but in reference to what? The father started walking over to the kitchen. Older model residence due to the dark wood accents and trim around windows and doorframes, but definitely not outdated. Two used cups on the counter and two used bowls, meaning they already ate breakfast. Father going over to clean the dishes. The cups indicate the wife being home, but she is nowhere to be found around the house.

0:12 – 0:16

Father rolling his sleeves up and walking over to the dishes to start cleaning them. Pink flowers in the background on the kitchen table, still look alive and new. Brought them home for his wife who he is currently fighting with in an attempt to make amends. On the table with the dirty dishes, there is a knife within reach of the boy, signifying danger in his young life.

0:16 – 0:19

Little boy asks to play with father’s gun. Little standing by the front door asking the question, clean house with a toy tank by the skateboard. Boy likes guns and likes violence. The boy does not appear to be ready for school even though he is of age, so most likely a weekend, summer, or a holiday. On the right of the screen, on the counter, there is a box of pancake mix. Father made pancakes for breakfast but there are also two bowls on the kitchen counter and no plates. Possibly made the pancakes for his wife while she is still in bed and she still has the dirty dishes still in bed.

0:19 – 0:25

Father and son having a conversation, the father seems surprised by what the boy is saying even though he is standing in the same spot. The camera is close on the boy when he first speaks, as if what he is saying is the whole purpose of the ad, and then when it cuts back onto the boy after the dad, it is a much broader span. The boy then shrugs his shoulders with saying nothing. The broader span signifies it could be a much larger issue being talked about and that it does not only pertain to this single middle-class family.

0:25 – 0:30

The father is pouring his glass of coffee but there is another cup next to the coffee machine. He is not pouring it for some reason even though it is being used because it is a clean cup sitting next to the coffee machine.



Research paper – wildwood

Abuse from the Executive

The relationship between the president and the people is transcendent. They are connected unlike any other politician, with the exception of the vice president, not only because that is the only contest that ballots are cast nation-wide, because the office is the face of the government, whether policies and legislation passed, cast a shadow of a good or bad light. The President has responsibilities that differ from other politicians because they need to connect on all levels for the relationship to work, and for the president to not be hated by the general public. The Presidency requires statesmanship, public speaking, and cooperation between all parties. The office is the go-to for citizens and their issues.

“However [political parties] may now and then answer popular ends, they are likely in the course of time and things, to become potent engines, by which cunning, ambitious, and unprincipled men will be enabled to subvert the power of the people and to usurp for themselves the reins of government, destroying afterwards the very engines which have lifted them to unjust dominion.” George Washingtonuttered those words during his farewell address to the people of the United States, forewarning the nation that political parties has the potential to tear this nation apart at the seams. President Washington’s theory was that political parties would undermine the foundations that people were killed over when the founding fathers were putting the framework in place. Citizens thinking would differ from one stance to another, solely based on the fact that their party aligns with thinking, even if you don’t. People would blindly vote with their party which would impede the free-thinking country that the United States is destined to be.

The founding fathers needed a new way of thinking and needed it quick. They needed concepts such as leadership, who would run the government, how they would run the government, how citizens would be appointed to positions, and what powers those officials would have when elevated in such places. One of the most important and momentous statute that was implemented was the separation of powers. The separation of powers or checks and balances as they are more commonly referred too, allows the three branches of government, the Executive, Legislative and Judicial, to operate freely within their respective constraints granted by the Constitution. More importantly, the Second Article defines where all branches must pull back regulation due to potential interference with other branches.  Granted to the leader of the Executive Branch, an extremely vague proclamation giving the President the sole power to correct any legislation that they do not feel best fits the people of the United States. The decree is known as an Executive Order and the President himself is the solitary owner of the ability to use such order. Executive Orders, unlike memorandums, cannot exceed the cost to the tax payer of one hundred million dollars. Executive orders are required to be posted to the Federal Register, making them easier to track. An executive order is not clearly defined in the Constitution, or any other official document, but is only known as ensuring the president “…take care that the laws be faithfully executed.” Each major party has a skewed interpretation of the text, favoring the laws they or their base want passed, which overall does not favor bi-partisan lawmaking.

The second article, although giving the American people the most ambiguous definition, gives us the clearest text related to the Executive Orders by stating, “…executive order can be used to execute a power the commander in chief already has. It can’t be used to give the presidency new powers.” Executive orders while vague in every definition are quite restrictive; the president cannot expand his role within the government despite the scope of broadness used in the constitution. All orders while not needing approval of Congress or other branches have to go through many stipulations in order to actually be “executed” or put in place. Every executive order is subject to scrutiny from the supreme court and frankly, the entirety of the country. The executive order is not necessarily total and final and can be overturned by Congress or deemed unconstitutional by the supreme court. The President also has the ability to veto Congress if he feels that a law which was passed does not best serve the country. If a law was passed conventionally through Congress, by whipping the proper number of votes together and receiving the majority of the “yay” vote, the President can veto said law very easily by not signing off when it comes to his desk for its final sign off. Just as the President can veto, Congress can overturn the Executive Orders with 2/3 majority of the vote. 2/3 majority of the vote seems very possible to the novice politician because Congress is a group of elected men and women who run their campaigns on the promise of togetherness and teamwork, but when it comes down to it, politicians are in it for themselves and remain focused on reelection. The rarity of overturning an executive order through the House and Senate is due to the non-cohesiveness of the body of the Congress and the “Washington congestion” that is so widely spoken about but not truly addressed.

Other branches oversee one another, to watch over the government and not allow one body who governs this nation to become too strong. In the 1800’s Andrew Jackson cleaned house and relieved all government employees from their duties and replaced them with new, like-minded men whose beliefs aligned with his thinking. Daniel Webster, a politician who was elected to The House and later the Senate, was staunchly against President Jacksons order and said, “The contest for ages has been to rescue liberty from the grasp of executive power.” Webster feared that the founding father’s idea of keeping power hungry officials at bay was quickly unraveling and that the President would slowly pick away and see what would be allowed until more radical orders would be accepted by the courts and Congress. Around the same time as when Andrew Jackson was replacing his government with his newly appointed workers, President Lincoln did not fear that Jackson overstepped the boundaries granted to him by the Constitution. President Lincoln did fear that one day Caesarian dangers could be the downfall to the republic if overstepping in the Executive branch were to happen too often and continued to be accepted by the public. Lincoln stated “…intoxication with their own supremacy…” in fright that the duly elected President could become so self-absorbed and power hungry that they sometimes overstep their roles and not always get caught and reeled back into their boundaries.

For generations, political leaders as well as the general public kept tabs on the President, making sure he does not impede on other officials and violates the constitution by issuing an unconstitutional Executive Order. If the President does overstep their boundary, there are steps set in place to either correct or revoke the political action set forth, ensuring the boundaries are respected.

Bill Clinton, in 1992, was elected to the highest office in the land, the President of the Unites States after defeating the incumbent two term Vice President, George H.W. Bush. While elevated to the role of President, President Clinton issued254 Executive Orders during his presidency and in 1995, he passed the controversial Executive Order 12954. EO 12954 was an order barring the federal government from entering into contracts with contractors who hired permanent workers for striking employees. President Clinton understood the unions and that they band together at times of distress, to use striking as an effective tool in an attempt to obtain better working conditions or represent their mistreatment. This kind of backing of the unions is unprecedented because Federal Contracts were always a safe bet for contractors when in desperate need of a contract. Federal contracts could range anywhere from a couple thousands of dollars, all the way to $43 billion dollars and anywhere in between, and if your company happened to hire replacement workers just to fulfill that contract, then that offer will become void, possibly causing a substantial loss for the bidding company. President Clintons driving force behind the order was to ensure the productivity of the federal government remains at peak levels and should not be affected by the relationship between the employer and employee.

Unfortunately for President Clinton, EO 12954 was nullified by the 104thCongress when Congressman William Goodling introduced resolution 1176. HR 1176 stated, “…the passage of EO 12954 seriously diminished the system of collective bargaining, which was an effective tool of unions and other blue-collar groups.” Both sides of the aisle agreed with the resolution because the balance of interests and risks between labor and their management is a fine line that should not be hindered or tampered with by a third party.

The nullification of EO 12954 was not the first time an executive order has been overturned on the grounds of it being unconstitutional or overreaching. In 1952 President Truman issued EO 1034 when he took control of the steel mills in an attempt to prevent the labor strikes from affecting the output of the nation’s most important good. The executive order was struck down from the courts shortly after its’ introduction, due to the executive branch overstepping into the legislative branch. The courts said, in their decision to nullify EO 1034 that executive orders must stem from an act of Congress or the Constitution itself, giving more clarity on how executive orders can be utilized legally. Ever since the revocation of EO 1034, Presidents are more likely to use a lot of the same verbiage from previous successful executive orders. The Clinton administration did not attempt to pass legislation the conventional way yet escalated to the use of the executive order in a short amount of time. If President Clinton thought he could get the legislation passed by going through the house and senate, why did he not go to the chambers of the legislative branch and present his case in a clear-cut argument? The fact that if the President is not a good enough statesman, if he lacks negotiation skills or has nothing to barter in a trade with other congressmen, they are forced to utilize the executive order to show to the people that they are at the very minimum, exasperating all options to further their parties’ interests.

When Congress or the Supreme deem it necessary to intervene in the passage of an Executive Order, it is not taken lightly by the rest of the government or the President himself. The body of the government who wishes to see the order revoked must have clear and concise reasoning for why they feel the order is either unconstitutional or an act of overstepping. The White House did not do much to combat the fact that the Presidents Executive Order was revoked, instead they turned to the means of conventional legislation in the House and Senate to get more protections for the union employees.

Let’s remember, the sole purpose of executive orders is for the President to act in the good will of the American people and to ensure the Constitution is being upheld faithfully. At what point do Presidents take advantage of the privilege and use it without being blind to partisanship? Upholding the Constitution should automatically mean for the good of the nation, but nowadays it seems like orders are for the good of the party. Did President Clinton know executive order 12954 was going to be shot down shortly after introduction? Did he want to show the unions he stands with the workers? President Clinton would’ve collected millions of votes if the unions backed him. The election was only a year or so out when the order was issued and if he could get the backing from the very wealthy, powerful and enormous labor unions across the country, he would’ve been in a great position. President Clinton, like every President before and after him, sworn under oath to uphold the ways of the country set in place by the founding fathers and agreed to do so. If the President starts waving the executive order power around and uses it solely to forward their agenda, did the founding fathers really set their predecessors up for success?

If an executive order was viewed on by the public as a partisan tool for either party to gain more seats in the house, to win more elections, to please a wealthy donor who supports their super pac, can it really be overturned if it was not deemed unconstitutional? Executive order 12954 wasn’t overturned because President Clinton was trying to please potential voters, it wasn’t turned over because he basically abused a power bestowed to him to gain votes, it was overturned because it was unconstitutional. That’s it. If it wasn’t deemed unconstitutional, the order would likely be in place to this day and President Clinton would have perhaps won the 1996 election by even a larger margin than he originally did.

There is no line whether or not an executive order was issued due to partisanship or for the good of the country, but the courts and elected officials are tasked with the responsibility to ensure the President carries out the will of the people. When President Obama was in office, executive orders were in the forefront due to his use of the policy. People do not see the difference between executive orders and executive actions, so naturally they though the terms were on in the same and accused him of abusing the power. Because President Obama did not have any of his executive orders overturned, does that mean he wasn’t abusive to the privilege?

President Obama’s executive order 13535, signed in March of 2010, reinforced the administration’s commitment to restrict federal funding of abortion. The order was signed after several pro-life democrats advised the president that they will not support his massive overhaul of the nation’s health care system if he did not take major steps to strengthen the language of the restriction of federal funds for abortion. Executive order 13535 was a show of commitment from Obama to democrats in the house that he is willing to work with his party, only if they are willing to work with him to pass historic legislation that is on the horizon. An executive order regarding abortion funding was not overturned, but an order effecting government agencies and which companies are granted contracts was nullified for being unconstitutional. President Obama used the executive order policy to advance his agenda, to please sitting politicians so they will vote his way when he introduces the Affordable Care Act, also known as Obamacare, which affects every single American. Obamacare makes it mandatory for Americans who don’t have healthcare for more than three months, to be taxed at a penalty of 2.5% of your annual income. If executive order 13535 had never been passed, who knows if President Obama would’ve had enough votes to pass Obamacare.

Executive orders were never meant for Presidents to use as a bargaining chip, to give favors to other congressmen and senators in an attempt to get legislation passed that their constituents would like to see passed. The validity of the executive order is deteriorating, it is becoming a propaganda tool of each side of the aisle. When one party uses it, the other side will call it an abuse of power and demand the criteria to issue one it to be more scrutinized or completely done away with all together. The media in modern day politics is rarely unbiased, and either supports or creates a divide with any agenda, regardless of political preference. The premise of an honest government who fails to lie and succeeds in telling the truth is watered down and virtually non-existent with back door deals and him or her only looking out for themselves, making sure they always win the next election.


Research- veleze22


Concussions Matter

According to studies of the University of Utah, “A concussion is a mild form of traumatic brain injury that affects how your brain functions. These effects can be short-term, lasting only a few hours or a couple of days, or cause long-term problems.” When players trade blows to the head it causes impact between the brain and the skull. A hit can be so hard that it affects the way a player’s brain functions and can also cause long-term damage. Studies show that about 300,000 TBIs occur in sports each year.

In the sport of football, traumatic brain injuries such as concussions have drastically affected hundreds of professional athletes until this day and still have an impact on the game. The NFL will always have cases of concussions no matter what equipment is worn. Concussions have been a serious present issue with players today. The NFL has tried to resolve the number on concussions occurring during seasons by improving equipment, adding concussion protocols, and making rule changes to ensure the safety of playing at all levels of football. Although these changes have improved and decreased the number of concussions occurring, coaches and organizations must focus on High School and College level players because of all the young, developing brains of the athletes. They must understand that concussions are very severe and can cause long-term damage to the brain. It is important to educate them on the issue while they’re still taking in everything that comes with playing the game of football. Concussions are a serious injury, and should no longer be taken lightly.

Helmet manufacturers have been trying to reduce the impact of hits to the head with new helmet technology. Over the years several new models of helmets have been improved more and more by the year. The National Operating Committee on Standards tests helmets for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE), which provides voluntary standards that are designed to assess a helmet’s ability to prevent skull fracture. These helmets provide bigger and more comfortable padding which only makes the players feel like it’s safer than the standard helmet. What it does is make players want to hit harder while completely disregarding a full impact head to head hit. The University of Utah detailed that, “concussions injure your brain to some extent and they all require time to heal. Brain injury from even the mildest concussions can have short-term and long-term effects. The effects of a concussion can be subtle and change over time. Symptoms can last days, weeks or longer.” Since 2003, researchers have been instrumenting football players with the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) system to collect head acceleration data each time a player experiences a head impact. The measurement and analysis of head acceleration data collected from these in-helmet accelerometer arrays have been well validated and accepted. The concept of the study was to develop and introduce the concept of a new evaluation system that can be used to provide quantitative insight into the protective performance of football helmets against concussions.


With this in mind, technology is at a stage where it can resolve all problems. It has risen to be one of the most dependable sources in our present time. Technology has the power to even stop concussions occurring in our most dangerous sports, like football. Every year, thousands of football players suffer from mild concussions. Concussions occur when the brain moves and collides with the skull. A new mechanism called the “STAR Evaluation system” was brainstormed and “can be used to evaluate helmet performance by integrating player head impact exposure and risk of concussion.” “Development of the STAR Evaluation System for Football Helmets: Integrating Player Head Impact Exposure and Risk of Concussion.” Written by Steven Rowson, explains that “the Summation of Tests for the Analysis of Risk (STAR) equation relates on-field impact exposure to a series of 24 drop tests performed at four impact locations and six impact energy levels.” The evaluation system contained 62,974 data points based off of head impact. The STAR formula combined the 24 drop tests with the predicted risk of injury and exposure for each player throughout the whole entire season. The new STAR evaluation equation provides sports science with a special tool that can calculate the performance of helmets being developed. This can really separate the strong from the weak because it’ll always produce accurate data for each helmet. With that being said coaches must be very attentive to all players and the number of impact blows taken to the head. With this new technology in effect it will be a requirement for coaches to monitor players’ helmet performance.  This helmet system may be the next big thing when it comes to preventing head injury and long-term effects caused by concussions involving football.

Overall, impacts to the front of the helmet occurred most frequently, and were followed by impacts to the rear, top, and side of the helmet. Using these percentages, the number of impacts to each impact location for a single player participating in a complete season were computed based on the assumption that a total of 1,000 head impacts were experienced. This transformation gives that for a single season, a player will experience 347 impacts to the front of the helmet, 319 impacts to the rear of the helmet, 171 impacts to the top of the helmet, and 163 impacts to the sides of the helmet. Being that I played football my whole life I can standby these results. Throughout a full season a player goes through a significant amount of hits to the head whether it’s during practice or in a game, the numbers add up well.

                                                        NFL Effects

This past season the NFL had launched an Injury Reduction Plan with the aim to reduce the incidence of concussions in the upcoming 2018 season. Following a 16 percent increase in concussions during the 2017 season, NFL Chief Medical Officer Dr. Allen Sills issued a call-to-action to reduce concussions. “We see our job in player health and safety to have the very best care for our patients as possible—in terms of prevention, in terms of treating and diagnosing injuries, and doing rehabilitation for those injuries—so we can keep our players as safe as possible,” said Dr. Sills. NFL leaders, clubs and the wide variety of experts in medicine, engineering and science who form the NFL medical committees developed a three-pronged approach to drive behavioral changes. The NFL also created an educational video for players, coaches and club personnel about the concussion reduction strategy. “We designed what we think are going to be steps that can immediately impact the number of concussions on our fields,” he said. The NFL made 3 categories that will experience change and improvement they are preseason practices, better performing helmets, and rule changes.

“The first part of our concussion reduction [strategy],” said Dr. Sills, “is around preseason practices—so we want to work with our clubs to look at how they’re practicing, what types of drills are being done to see if we can drive that number [of concussions] down.” The NFL is sharing information across the league to educate, stimulate change and enhance player safety—including information about the causes of concussion, the helmets players wear, and injury data analysis, such as preseason practice concussion data. The second part of the Injury Reduction Plan is a goal to get players out of lower-performing helmets and into better-performing helmets in an effort to decrease the risk of injury. Each year, helmets undergo laboratory testing by biomechanical engineers appointed by the NFL and the NFL Players Association to evaluate which helmets best reduce head impact severity. The results of the laboratory tests are displayed on a poster and shared with NFL players, club equipment managers, as well as club medical, training and coaching staffs to help inform equipment choices. In 2018, based on the results of this study and the opinions of the biomechanical experts involved, the NFL and NFLPA will prohibit 10 helmet models from being worn by NFL players. It is important to note that no helmet can completely protect against serious brain or neck injuries a player might sustain while playing football, and that the results of this testing should not be extrapolated to collegiate, high school, or youth football. The third component of the Injury Reduction Plan is the enforcement of rules changes aimed at eliminating potentially risky behavior that could lead to injuries. Through the latest changes including the “Use of the Helmet” rule and kickoff modifications, the NFL is leveraging data in an effort to improve player safety and evolve the game.

While the NFL did keep in mind the number of injuries that were being recorded, according to the NCAA Concussion study, “Approximately 300,000 sport-related concussions occur in the United States annually, and the likelihood of serious sequelae may increase with repeated head injury.” A prospective cohort study of incident and recurrent concussions in a defined group of collegiate athletes was taken place for 3 football seasons, a total of 2,905 players were studied. “The 2905 college football players were followed up for a total of 4251 player-seasons. Our study resulted in 196 reported concussions among 184 players (12 concussions were prospective repeat concussions). Of the 196 incident concussions, 94 were included in the assessment group. The overall rate of incident concussion was 0.81 per 1000 athlete exposures (95% CI, 0.70-0.93). More than half of the total concussions (n = 101 [51.5%]) occurred in practices, but the rate of concussive injuries in games was markedly higher than the rate in practices (rate ratio, 8.15; 95% CI, 6.16-10.78). The rate in Division III was also higher than the rates in Divisions I and II.”

Effects of Concussions

Concussions can have short-term effects like headaches and confusion. According to the University of Utah, “Some people experience loss of memory and are unable to remember the event in which the concussion occurred.” Some symptoms of having a concussion may be headaches, memory loss, cloudy memory, delayed responses when talking, dizziness, ringing in the ears, nausea, blurry vision, and sensitivity to light and sound. With this in mind, concussions without a doubt have an effect on the human brain that is unlike any other injury. Those involved in sports that have a high contact-to-contact aspect to them, are more likely to suffer indefinitely from injuries such as a concussion. Players, who have experienced a concussion for them, may also be deterred from going back on the field to potentially relive the horror moment that put them out of the game in the first place.

Concussions can also have long-term effects on an individual. Sometimes symptoms of a concussion may begin to occur after the incident. Although most people that suffer from a concussion only see short-term effects there are cases where people have to suffer long-term. The University of Utah stated that long-term effects of a concussion can include, “trouble concentrating, memory problems, irritability, personality changes, sensitivity to light and noise, sleep disturbances, depression and other psychological problems.” Some people suffer from post-concussion syndrome, which is when you are still experiencing symptoms more then a month after the injury has occurred. What some may fail to realize is that, the more concussions a person has than the more long-term effects an individual may suffer from. This can also occur if one rushes into returning to the same activity that landed them with the concussion itself in the first place without letting their brain fully heal. It is important to let your brain heal to the fullest, because one wrong move can potentially set that person back even further than before.

In conclusion, concussions are more serious than most people would think. The effects of these traumatic injuries can be life changing, and ruin ones career and lifelong dreams. No matter what equipment is made to decrease a concussion from happening, it will never be sufficient for one to be completely risk-free. It is important to take into consideration that the NFL has even worked diligently on trying to prevent their players from having to suffer from such injury, which is why concussions should be taken even more seriously. Concussions have long-lasting effects, can destroy our youth’s both physically and emotionally, and can damage the future for our children when it comes to playing sports and living their life to the fullest.


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Rowson, S., & Duma, S. M. (2011, May 07). Development of the STAR Evaluation System for Football Helmets: Integrating Player Head Impact Exposure and Risk of Concussion. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10439-011-0322-5

Schwarz, A. (2009, December 03). N.F.L. Issues New Guidelines on Concussions. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/03/sports/football/03concussion.html

Traumatic Brain Injury – Football, Warfare, and Long-Term Effects | NEJM. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmp1007051


Visual Rhetoric Rewrite – Pinkpineapples23

Know your girls :30|Breast Cancer Risk Education| Ad Council 

0:00 – 0:03 – It starts out zoomed in with the spotlight on an African American woman wearing what could be a gold shirt and in the background behind her are multiple African American women gathered around her. As the picture zooms out you can see that the women are arranged in a way like they are taking a picture. They have on coordinated colors of brown, white, and gold and each of their faces are serious. The frame zooms out into darkness.

0:04-0:07 – A new picture is now on the screen. It shows the same main women in the spotlight but this time she is wearing a graduation cap and gown. As the picture zooms out, it shows that she is with her friends who have also graduated. They are taking a picture with the congratulations banner hanging in the back. The screen then fades to black.

0:08-0:10 – Its now night time and the main woman is now seen at home laying down with her pajamas on. Her facial expression shows that she is upset about something. As the it zooms out, she is laying on an older woman, who could be her mom or grandma. And she is surrounded by a handful of her friends who are consoling her. Screen goes back to black.

0:11-0:14 – This picture shows the main character in a wedding dressing holding a bouquet of white flowers. She is looking down at someone or something. As the frame moves out, she is with those same handful of women who are now her bridesmaid. She is looking down at her friend who seems to be helping her with her shoe. Three other women are helping with her veil and the other three are in the corner sitting down taking a picture.

0:15-0:17 – she is now sitting down in a chair holding her child. On the right of her is an older woman who could be her mom standing over her, admiring the baby. On her left is a man, who is sitting on the floor with his arms rested on arm of the chair. He could be her husband or her brother, he is also admiring the baby.

0:18-0:21 – The spotlight is just on her. She is in her natural sate with some makeup on, the focus is from the shoulders up with a gray background. She is upset about something. Her facial expression shows that she is holding back tears. At the end she slowly puts her head down.

0:22-0:23 – As her head is down and her eyes are still closed but her expression still shows she is upset. The way her forehead is wrinkled, and her eyebrows are scrunched shows that she has her eyes shut tight.

0:24-0:26 – She slowly looks up at the camera. Her eyes first and then her head follows. As this is happening words come up on the screen that says, “knowing your breasts can save your life”. Her facial expression now shows that she is upset but also in fear.

0:27-0:37 – the screen is now all black. A website is on the screen with words underneath that say, “for the facts you need on breast health.”

Riddles About Riddles

Just one last word before I go.

I wrote these jokes to make a point.

Version 1
—Knock knock.
—Who’s there?
—Death who?

Version 2
—Knock knock.
—Who’s there?
Death who?
—Ultimately, it makes little difference in what form death arrives or by what name we call it. We all go one way or another and while there may be more dignity in some manners of demise, more time to prepare, or less suffering, the ultimate destination couldn’t be more similar: gone and gone and gone forever.

For me, they’re both funny (for you, maybe neither), but for different reasons. Version 1 is funny because it’s quick to point out a universal absurdity. Version 2 is funny because it gets the tone of a knock-knock joke so spectacularly wrong.

In Version 1 we laugh at ourselves for caring what kind of death is knocking. In Version 2 we laugh at the form the joke takes. I think that makes Version 2 a meta-joke, a joke about jokiness.

But that wasn’t my point.

My point was there is usually a way to say what you mean that is perfectly appropriate to your intentions, sometimes more than one, but always many, many, many, many, many ways to get the tone all wrong and spoil the effect you were going for, usually by falling for ready-made language or by overwriting what could be written simply.

My point is that when the chicken crosses the road “to get to the other side,” we laugh at the well-made joke. We laugh at how badly the joke gets it wrong when the chicken crosses the road “to find itself in sudden and much-valued possession of some other-sidedness.”

Which sort of jokes are you writing (Version 1 or Version 2)?

Which sort of jokes are these?:

—How many licensed electricians does it take to screw in a lightbulb?
—Just one.

—How can you tell the difference between an oral thermometer and a rectal thermometer?
—The taste.

Exercise for the Leave a Reply fields below:
Write a joke that gets the tone so wrong that it either dies on the spot or is funny precisely because it upends our expectations.

And if you can’t do that in the time available, just share a good (or amusingly bad) joke.

White Pages- Wildwood


An unbiased source is always the best source as we have here. This post delves deep into the history of executive order 12954, written by President Clinton in 1995 that was overturned by the Supreme Court for unconstitutional motives. This source gives all details regarding EO 12954 and puts the Secretary of Labor on the forefront, putting them in charge of enforcing the department to abide by the order. The order allows the secretary to terminate the contract for convenience, but the department head may write to the secretary and explain why the workers were replaced, pleading the case.


This source describes where the executive powers come from within the constitution, which is Article 2 section 1, “The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America.” Also states that there is no explicit text giving the President the executive order privilege. It hits on the two overturned Executive Orders, EO 1034 which was written by Truman, placing the nations steel mills in control of the government to prevent labor strikes to affect the output of one of the nation’s most important good.  The order was also overturned because it was determined that it overstepped the executive branch and into the legislation branch. EO 12954 is the topic of my thesis, is when Bill Clinton in 1995 attempted to bar the secretary to not allow any federal contracts to be issued to any organization that hires replacement employees. Executive order, when issued, normally follow the same language as previous orders to reiterate or revamp the previous directive.



More discussion on Truman’s executive order when he attempted to the seize the steel mills in 1952 and how the courts rules that the order must stem from an act of congress or the constitution itself. That ruling is giving a shape to the free forming executive power and was the only writing thus far regarding limits of executive power. The procurement act of 1949 allows the president and his subordinates to make purchases for the executive branch. Speaks more about different executive orders throughout the years by various different presidents. More recently George W. Bush issued an order requiring federals organization that entered into a contract with the government to utilize electronic employment verification to ensure the workers are legal.

Any White Paper note about a source that promotes a specific political agenda should acknowledge that fact: The American Prospect’s mission is summed up in the phrase “liberal intelligence” that runs under the logo on the magazine’s cover. We aim to advance liberal and progressive goals through reporting, analysis, and debate about today’s realities and tomorrow’s possibilities.



The quote from this article speaks volumes and really hammers home what an executive order is. It states the president does in fact have limits on their usage of the order, but does not give exact parameters, much like in reality where there is no specific text holding the president from issuing orders to effect whichever way of life they wish. This piece also hits on another important line that is common when scouring the internet for articles related to the executive orders, it comes from Article 2 of the Constitution when it defines the role of the President and within the article it states, “…take care that the laws be faithfully executed.” This article is interesting because it states that congress has little authority to limit an executive order. Goes into speak about President Clintons executive order and how the federal courts struck it down claiming it exceeded the scope of the presidency. Directly charges the separation of powers as a way to limit the orders coming from the President and acknowledges that the hostility is present. A very useful timeline of famous executive orders is listed with a very brief summary of them. Obama issued the executive order giving amnesty to illegal immigrants, and when the courts stepped in at the state’s request, it temporary halted the order. The order from President Obama is still subject to review of the courts for a long time to come. Health care and gun control were the focuses of President Obamas executive orders and critics claimed he took the easy way out after failing to get laws passed the conventional way. So it brings up the ultimate question of using executive orders if the president is not a good enough politician or statesman.




This brief article brings up a topic of an executive compared to a memorandum. The stark differences are that the memorandums do not need to be published in the Federal Register unlike the Executive Orders. If the cost of the memorandum exceeds $100 million, then it needs to be released. If not, like every Executive Order passed regardless of the price, the cost needs to be disclosed.



Executive action is described as a catch all term used for any action taken by the president, including executive orders. Memorandums are much harder to track because they do not have to be submitted to the Federal Register. This source has all of the numbers of which president had the most to least executive orders and categorized by year.



This short and sweet article explains how the Congress could override the President and how the President can override Congress. The President can overrule Congress with a veto but if 2/3 majority of Congress wants to overturn the veto, keeping their legislation moving, then they have that authority. The most common time this comes to surface is when passing budgets. The President and his cabinet are tasked with creating the ideas and also tasked with getting it passed, but of course Congress could vote against. This theory creates gridlock when trying to pass new legislation, so the President has the power to attempt to vote the Congress members out. Truman did so when he was having a difficult time passing any legislation through the house. He campaigned around the country in an attempt to sway voters to call for new Congressmen, which worked.



This piece is the legislation that the 104thcongress passed to nullify Executive Order 12954, prohibiting Federal contractors from entering into contracts over $100,000 who hire permanent replacements for striking employees. William Goodling introduced HR 1176 to the body with an initial cosponsor ship of 29 members, but the day it was ratified, had a sponsorship of 70 members. There had been many hearings in past congresses protecting employers from hiring permanent replacements, until President Clinton introduced EO 12954. There had only been one hearing in the house, heard before the Committee of Economic and Educational Opportunities membership, solely based around the issues raised by HR 1176. The HR bill claimed that the passage of EO 12954 seriously diminished the system of collective bargaining. The foundation is the balancing of the interests and risks between labor and management, so that both parties could agree and move forward from contracts.



This article describes Obamacare, which was deemed legal through the eyes of the supreme court, which effected about every American. Obamacare requires citizens to have healthcare for 9 out of the 12 months, and if not, you are taxed at 2.5% of your income. That one part of Obamacare alone effects the entire country including people who did not vote for the act to pass. Regardless of how you feel or your political preferences, you would now be mandated to pay the extra tax if you are without healthcare for some time out of the year.



This article dives into the truth behind what democrats said during the process of getting Obamacare into law. Obama said families who were happy with their doctors and providers could keep their coverage. In fact, all democrats, in an attempt to appeal to the public, stated that allowing families to keep their doctors, would be their number one concern. Before Obamacare was even written into law, the dialogue did not demand employers to keep their current plan and allowed them to drop or change plans at will. Roughly 10 million people who would normally be covered by employer provided plans would no longer be offered coverage under one of the proposals. Cost effective plans would no longer be legal due to the new minimum requirements for all plans.  “Americans who purchase such plans on the individual insurance market have been receiving notices that their current plans will no longer be offered after this year…” which is the opposite of what the democratic leaders stated.



“The contest for ages has been to rescue liberty from the grasp of executive power.” Said by Daniel Webster, a politician elected to The House in the early 1800’s and later elected to the Senate. President Andrew Jackson fired over 2,000 government employees during his tenure and replaced all officials with like-minded men whose beliefs aligned with his thinking. Daniel Webster was staunchly against what the President did and feared that it could set a new precedent for generations to come. Webster believed


“…intoxication with their own supremacy…” -President Lincoln when discussing Caesarian dangers to the republic if overstepping continues to be accepted by the general public. Leaders who run on and get elected to President become so self-absorbed and power hungry that they sometimes overstep their roles and not always get caught.



The article explains how President Obama helped his Affordable Healthcare legislation get through the house even though many politicians did not agree on it. Obama utilized his executive order privilege to protect certain statues currently written into law regarding Abortion. Executive orders not only shows that the President can force their will onto the citizens with the simple order, but can gain the votes of their counterparts in Congress by a sort of give and take. The President can give the majority leader something they want or something that will make that politicians constituents happy, in exchange for a vote in the Presidents favor.