Rebuttal- Veleze22

Technology Arises

     Technology is at a stage where it can solve just about any problem. It has risen to be one of the most dependable sources in our present time. Technology has the power to even stop concussions occurring in our most dangerous sports, like football. Every year, thousands of football players suffer from mild concussions. Concussions occur when the brain moves and collides with the skull. In comparison to the publicly available data on the safety vehicles, organizations have no technology to evaluate the protective performance of football helmets. A new mechanism called the “STAR Evaluation system” was brainstormed and can be used to evaluate helmet performance by detecting player head impact exposure and risk of concussion. STAR stands for Summation of Tests for the Analysis of Risk, the test relates on-field impacted hits to a series of 24 drop tests performed at four different impact locations and six impact energy levels. The test used 62,974 head acceleration data points collected from football players, the number of impacts experienced for one full season was translated to 24 drop test configurations. A new injury risk function was developed from 32 measured concussions and made exposed data to assess risk of concussion for each of the impacts. All the data from the 24 drop tests were combined into one number using the STAR formula that counted the predicted exposure and injury risk for one athlete for an entire full season of practices and games. The STAR evaluation equation gave consumers an important tool to assess the relative performance of football helmets. With that being said this device can key to preventing head injury for all players, even outside the sport of football. Coaches must be very attentive to their players and take notice in the number of impact blows these players receive because with this new technology in effect it will be up to them to monitor and distinguish when a player has been hit one too many times. It’s a coaches job to keep their players safe and to follow the guidelines received from their coaching association. This new device has been tested to its ability and the results speak for themself.

     Impacts to the front of the helmet occurred most frequently while recording data, and were followed by impacts to the rear, top, and side of the players helmets. Using these percentages, the number of blows to each player playing in a complete season were computed based on the hypothesis that a total of 1,000 head blows were experienced. This information basically tells you that for a single season, a player will experience an estimated 347 impacts to the front of the helmet, 319 impacts to the rear of the helmet, 171 impacts to the top of the helmet, and 163 impacts to the sides of the helmet. Being that I played football my whole life I can standby these results. Throughout a full season a player goes through a significant amount of hits to the head whether it’s during practice or in a game, the numbers substantially add up.

     In addition to the prevention of concussions, this past season the NFL launched an Injury Reduction Plan with the aim to reduce the number of concussions in the upcoming 2018 season. Following a 16 percent increase in concussions during the 2017 season, NFL Chief Medical Officer Dr. Allen Sills issued a call-to-action to try and reduce the number of concussions occurring during the season.

Sills stated, “We see our job in player health and safety to have the very best care for our patients as possible. In terms of prevention, in terms of treating and diagnosing injuries, and doing rehabilitation for those injuries. So we can keep our players as safe as possible.”

     NFL leaders, clubs and the wide variety of experts in medicine, engineering and science who form the NFL medical committees developed a three point approach to drive behavioral changes. The NFL also created an educational video for players, coaches and club personnel about the concussion reduction strategy, this would inform everyone in the organization the risks and how they are approaching them. Leaders in the 2018 press conference think they have designed what they think are going to be steps that can immediately impact the number of concussions on the football field.

     The NFL made 3 categories that will experience change and improvement, they are the following:

Preseason Practices

     The NFL wants their teams to take practices lightly. They don’t want players to hit full contact because it would prevent injury upon players and lower the risk of getting a concussion. Preseason only gets players ready for the regular season. It is not necessarily supposed to be taken serious. Players sometimes find themselves to be performing at very high-rate in the preseason and coaches do not want their players getting hurt and risking their regular season play. Depending on the injury, a player can be out for as long as a whole season, even longer. After getting hurt most players have to go through rehabilitation and build themselves back up to the point where they can play again, if that’s even possible.

 Better Performing Helmets

     The second part of the Injury Reduction Plan is a goal to get players out of lower-performing helmets and into better-performing helmets in an effort to decrease the risk of injury. Each year, helmets go through official testing by biomechanical engineers hired by the NFL and the NFL Players Association. Their job is to evaluate which helmets best reduce head impact severity. The results of the laboratory tests are displayed on posters and shared with NFL players, club equipment managers, as well as club medical, training and coaching staffs to help inform equipment choices and what’s best to wear. This year based on the results of the study and the opinions of the biomechanical experts involved, the NFL and NFLPA will not allow 10 helmet models from being worn by NFL players. It is important to remember that no helmet can completely protect a player against serious brain or neck injuries a player might sustain while playing football, and that the results of this testing should not be shared or passed down to collegiate, high school, or youth football.

 Rule Changes

     The third component of the Injury Reduction Plan is the enforcement of rules changes aimed at eliminating potentially risky behavior that could lead to injuries. Through the latest changes including the “Use of the Helmet” rule and kickoff modifications, the NFL is leveraging data in an effort to improve player safety and evolve the game. The NFL will not tolerate helmet-to-helmet contacts on players but most importantly the quarterback position. In past years the rule of helmet-to-helmet contact was not strictly enforced and sometimes officials would let the hit “slip.” In our present time these matters are taken very seriously. If a players fails to comprehend and follow the rules he will fined and/or suspended from a game.

In conclusion, the NFL is trying to decrease the amount of concussions their players are experiencing. As  previously stated, the STAR equation shows a direct correlation with players receiving direct impacts to their helmets. Depending on the location of the impact, depends on the severity of the concussion. The NFL wants to ensure the safety for their players on and off the field. In turn, that is why they created the three prong approach. Ensuring their players safety allows players to potentially experience a healthier long lasting life.

References

Rowson, Steven, and Stefan M. Duma. “Development of the STAR Evaluation System for Football Helmets: Integrating Player Head Impact Exposure and Risk of Concussion.” SpringerLink, Springer US, 7 May 2011, link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10439-011-0322-5.

“The 2018 Injury Reduction Plan: Initiatives to Advance Player Health and Safety.” NFL Play Smart, Play Safe, http://www.playsmartplaysafe.com/newsroom/videos/2018-injury-reduction-plan-initiatives-advance-player-health-safety/?utm_source=google&utm_medium=search&utm_content=gen-safety&utm_campaign=plan.

Olson, et al. “’We Need to Protect the Brain’: Addressing the Growing Problem of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy.” Current Psychiatry, Dowden Health Media, Inc., 1 Mar. 2016, http://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-447930732/we-need-to-protect-the-brain-addressing-the-growing.

Causal—veleze22

Sunday Night Head to Head Lights

In the sport of football, traumatic brain injuries such as concussions have drastically affected hundreds of professional athletes until this day and still has an impact on the game. The NFL will always have cases of concussions no matter what equipment is worn. Concussions have been a serious present issue with players today. The NFL has tried to resolve the number on concussions occurring during seasons by improving equipment, adding concussion protocols, and making rule changes to ensure the safety of playing at all levels of football. Although these changes have improved and decreased the number of concussions occurring, coaches and organizations must focus on High School and College level players because of all the young, developing brains of the athletes. They must understand that concussions are very severe and can cause long-term damage to the brain. It is important to educate them on the issue while they’re still taking in everything that comes with playing the game of football.

Helmet manufacturers have been trying to reduce the impact of hits to the head with new helmet technology. Over the years several new models of helmets have been improved more and more by the year. Helmets are tested by the National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) which provides voluntary standards that are designed to assess a helmet’s ability to prevent skull fracture. These helmets provide bigger and more comfortable padding which only makes the players feel like it’s safer than the standard helmet. What it does is make players want to hit harder while completely disregarding a full impact head to head hit. No matter how they happen, concussions injure your brain to some extent and they all require time to heal. Brain injury from even the mildest concussions can have short-term and long-term effects.The effects of a concussion can be subtle and change over time. Symptoms can last days, weeks or longer. Since 2003, researchers have  been instrumenting football players with the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) system to collect head acceleration data each time a player experiences a head impact. The measurement and analysis of head acceleration data collected from these in-helmet accelerometer arrays have been well validated and accepted. The concept of the study was to develop and introduce the concept of a new evaluation system that can be used to provide quantitative insight into the protective performance of football helmets against concussions.

Coaches feel obligated to keep their players safe from injury but should be held responsible on some occasions of concussions. As a coach you should always prevent injury to players. Coaches usually take it easy on players during practice. Players usually don’t practice with knee pads or thigh pads, are restricted from contact hitting, and mainly run through the motions for gameday. In a close game things are completely opposite, players obviously wear full gear and play full contact but coaches tend to push their players to the limit and get desperate to deliver wins for the school because their reason for being hired in the first place. This is where injuries come into play and it’s the coaches job to prevent that which isn’t always the case. In 2009, the NFL announced that it would impose its most stringent rules to date on managing concussions, requiring players who exhibit any significant sign of concussion to be removed from a game or practice and be barred from returning that same game. There were cases where players stopped showing symptoms or passed sideline tests and returned to the game not knowing that they really had a head injury. The NFL’s practice of allowing players to return has been a criticized for putting players at risk. It is widely known that symptoms of a concussion can reappear hours or days after the injury, indicating that the player had not healed from the initial blow. The new rule still allowed players with some fleeting concussion symptoms to return to games. Symptoms that require immediate removal include amnesia, poor balance and an abnormal neurological examination, whether or not those symptoms quickly subside. For symptoms like like dizziness and headache, however, a player can return to the field unless they are “persistent”, as the statement said.

 

References

 

Rowson, Steven, and Stefan M. Duma. “Development of the STAR Evaluation System for Football Helmets: Integrating Player Head Impact Exposure and Risk of Concussion.” SpringerLink, Springer US, 7 May 2011, link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10439-011-0322-5.

“Concussions: How They Can Affect You Now and Later  .” University of Utah Health, healthcare.utah.edu/healthfeed/postings/2016/11/concussion.php.

 

Schwarz, Alan. “N.F.L Issues New Guidelines on Concussions.” New York Times, 3 Dec. 2009.

Definition- veleze22

Elvis Velez

 

Although professional football players are aware of the dangers of playing the game, they still continue to play. It’s a lifestyle for them. Today the game of football has grown to be much more physical and aggressive than in the past. Players of young age are coming into the league much bigger, stronger, and faster than your average veteran. It’s like a new generation of football. With that being said more injuries to the head are being reported and more players are needing to take time off because of them.

 

According to the NCAA Concussion study, “Approximately 300,000 sport-related concussions occur in the United States annually, and the likelihood of serious sequelae may increase with repeated head injury.” A prospective cohort study of incident and recurrent concussions in a defined group of collegiate athletes was taken place for 3 football seasons, a total of 2,905 players were studied.

 

The 2905 college football players were followed up for a total of 4251 player-seasons. Our study resulted in 196 reported concussions among 184 players (12 concussions were prospective repeat concussions). Of the 196 incident concussions, 94 were included in the assessment group. The overall rate of incident concussion was 0.81 per 1000 athlete exposures (95% CI, 0.70-0.93). More than half of the total concussions (n = 101 [51.5%]) occurred in practices, but the rate of concussive injuries in games was markedly higher than the rate in practices (rate ratio, 8.15; 95% CI, 6.16-10.78). The rate in Division III was also higher than the rates in Divisions I and II.”

 

A concussion is a mild form of traumatic brain injury that affects how your brain functions. These effects can be short-term, lasting only a few hours or a couple of days, or cause long-term problems. When players trade blows to the head it causes the head and brain to move back and forward rapidly causing the brain to hit the skull and twist. It damages the delicate cells and structures inside the brain. This can cause physical and chemical changes in your brain to affect how it function and can cause serious long-term effects.

 

According to the University of Utah Health, “ About 300,000 TBIs occur each year as a result of sports, according to a study in the Journal of Athletic Training.”

 

Concussions can have short-term effects like headaches and confusion. Some people experience loss of memory and are unable to remember the event in which the concussion occured. Concussions may also cause, “ Headache, a temporary loss of consciousness, feeling as if your brain is in a fog, delayed response to questions, dizziness, ringing in your ears, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, blurred vision, and sensitivity to light and sound.” With this in mind, concussions without a doubt have an effect on the human brain that is unlike any other injury. Those involved in sports that have a high contact to contact aspect to them, are more likely to suffer indefinitely from injuries such as a concussion. Players who have experienced a concussion for themselves, may also be deterred from going back on the field to potentially relive the horror moment that put them out of the game in the first place.

 

Concussions can also have long-term effects on an individual. Some symptoms of a concussion develop hours or even days after the traumatic brain injury. Although, most people that suffer from a concussion only see short-term effects there are cases where people have to suffer long-term. Long-term effects of a concussion can include, “trouble concentrating, memory problems, irritability and other personality changes, sensitivity to light and noise, sleep disturbances, depression and other psychological problems, and disorders of smell and taste.” Some people even suffer from post-concussion syndrome, which is where they seem to still experience symptoms even after it has been six weeks since the injury has occured. What some may fail to realize is that, the more concussions a person has than the more long-term effects an individual may suffer from. This can also occur if one rushes into returning to the same activity that landed them with the concussion itself in the first place without letting their brain fully heal. It is important to let your brain heal to the fullest, because one wrong move can potentially set that person back even further than before.  

 

References

 

Guskiewicz, Kevin M., and ATC. “Cumulative Effects Associated With Recurrent Concussion in Collegiate Football Players.” JAMA, American Medical Association, 19 Nov. 2003, jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/197667.

 

“Concussions: How They Can Affect You Now and Later  .” University of Utah Health, healthcare.utah.edu/healthfeed/postings/2016/11/concussion.php.

 

Visual Rhetoric- veleze22

 

 

Visual Rhetoric

0:00-0:01- The ad starts very quickly with a dark room being lit up with the shadow of a person in a doorway. From the shape of the person, it seems to be a man with rolled up sleeves. His hands are on his hips while he is just standing there. Hands-on-hips communicates that a person is ready for assertive action. It lets the person take up more space and acts as a threat because the pointed elbows that act as weapons to prevent someone from approaching or passing. My instant thought about this is that there is some sort of unknown visit because when the door opens the man’s hands are already on his hips, which makes me believe that he didn’t open the door himself, maybe a person or thing on the other side did.

 

The ad is some sort of anime or cartoon. When you look at the man in the shadow you can see that his arms are curved like the letter C. His waist line to his legs are also a straight line so that immediately indicates that this is an ad made with video design.

 

0:02- The scene changes and there is now a close up of arms (rolled up sleeves) with gloves on. The arms seem to belong to the same person that was standing in the door way. It looks like he is reaching down to grab something, maybe off a night stand, or bed but I’m not sure what. The room is still dark.

 

My anime and cartoon guess seems to have proved itself true. The man has a thumb but only 3 fingers on each hand. It indicates that this ad is certainly of video design.

 

0:03-0:06- A mug that says “Lungs 4 Life” is shown being filled up with hot water. My indications are that someone is going to have tea. A white lab coat and face mask are put on as what appears to actually be a woman with her hair up is about to perform surgery or something.

 

0:07-0:10- The woman turns around is looks like a super hero with her face mask on. Her chest also has a pink logo on it. It looks like a pair of lungs and it is glowing. She seems to be a doctor. She is in an office with computers, a table, and a desk. She must be the hero. The scene turns to an outside setting. It is a nice sunny day outside and a man is painting his fence. He has a table with lemonade and a snack on it with a glass poured next to him as he paints.

 

0:11-0:14- The super doctor busts through the fence with her hand up in the air like she’s there to save the day. The man is looking at her in shock as she has now ruined his freshly painted fence.

 

0:15-0:18- The scene changes and is now zoomed into the man that was painting. He looks like his a saying something (to the super doctor). He looks disappointed because his fence. The angle then switches zoomed to the super doctor and she is saying something to the man. She looks happy. My guess is that she is providing the man with facts about the lungs since she is still in her suit. She then runs off back through the hole in the fence she came through.

 

0:19-0:22- The man is just standing, looking at the hole in his fence. It looks like he is thinking about what to do to fix the fence. This indicates to me that whatever the super doctor told the man, he doesn’t really care about. This could be why people have health problems. No one is worried about anything until something is wrong.

 

0:23-0:26- The man continues to stand and look at the fence. The scene ends and a message board comes up that says, “If you smoked, early detection could save your life.” Logos appear at the bottom of the ad for the Ad council, American Lung Association, and Lung Force.

 

0:27-0:30- The message changes to say “Learn more at SavedByTheScan.org”. The message here I’ve received through this ad is that smokers of the past or anyone who does smoke should get a lung cancer screening since smoking can cause cancer.

 

End of Ad.

PTSD Claims- veleze22

“Brannon Vines has never been to war. But she’s got a warrior’s skills: hyperawareness, hypervigilance, adrenaline-sharp quick-scanning for danger, for triggers.”

 

  1. This is a categorical claim because she named several examples of obvious PTSD symptoms but referred to them as “skills”.
  2. These are not skills. They are symptoms of PTSD.

 

“He’s one of the 103,200, or 228,875, or 336,000 Americans who served in Iraq or Afghanistan and came back with PTSD, depending on whom you ask, and one of 115,000 to 456,000 with traumatic brain injury.”

 

  1. This is a factual claim because the conditions do exist beyond doubt, hundreds of thousands of Americans who fought have been diagnosed after coming back.
  2. It has been proven that PTSD is commonly found in soldiers after battle.

 

“And as slippery as all that is, even less understood is the collateral damage, to families, to schools, to society—emotional and fiscal costs borne long after the war is over.”

 

  1. This is a causal claim because the author is telling the consequences a person with PTSD can bring to the environment.
  2. More information could have been provided but we get the point of what PTSD can cause.

 

“The house, in a subdivision a little removed from one of many shopping centers in a small town in the southwest corner of Alabama, is often quiet as a morgue. You can hear the cat padding around.”

 

  1. This is an analogy claim because the silence in the house is being compared to a morgue. It’s so silent you can hear the cat moving.
  2. Silence is a negative effect for people with PTSD. All the surrounding sounds trigger the person all at the same time.

 

End of one hour

 

Stone Money- veleze22

In todays world money is quoted “the root of all evil”. It’s used to ultimately get what you want, when you want. People say “money talks” and in an instant will do damn-near anything if the price is right. It doesn’t matter what form it comes in either as long as that slip, app, or physical dollar comes with a good number on it. I begin to ask myself, how do we know it’s all real? How do we know that those numbers aren’t just there for satisfaction and to make us feel good?

 

Reading Milton Friedman’s “The Island of Stone Money” really opened my eyes and helped me understand how currency and it’s value all came about. It makes me question our currency today and how it really works being that there are all types of forms we use to transfer funds between one another. The government only tells us their price for what our currency is worth. For all we know it could be worth nothing at all. It could literally be what it is, a piece of linen and cotton with a number on it. In the article the German Government bombarded into the island of Yap and claimed everything that wasn’t theirs. They took control and claimed the paths and highways were in bad condition. The chiefs of the several districts were told that they must have them repaired and put in good condition. Whoever questioned it got their fei slapped with a big X of black paint, it was then the German Governments fei. That’s like my bank account being frozen for failure to pay off a bill or not keeping enough money in my account.

 

The islanders of Yap resorted to stone being that there was no metal supply. They needed a form of currency that allowed their people to be able to purchase goods and trade. Fei was then created of limestone found on an island 400 miles away. It consisted of large and solid stone wheels, which ranged anywhere from one foot to twelve feet in diameter. Some of them weighed more than what a car would today. They were not mobile at all. The way it worked was by ownership. If you traded a giant stone for something big in return it was now your possession and everyone knew it. There wasn’t any way of transporting it to their home if you will, it stayed where it was originally.

 

After listening to “The Invention of Money” on the NPR broadcast I started to think about where does all my hard earned money go after every week? Does the government keep the actual value as I hold a slip with computerized numbers on it? Brazil’s inflation rate hit 80% for every month, it lasted about 5 decades. A bag of chips could cost a dollar one month and by the next month they’d cost $2 and by the time the year is up the price could be $12 for that same bag of chips. Brazil was putting their trust in president after president. It was like a continuous cycle of failure. A virtual currency system came into play which was used to trick people into thinking that the currency was real. People still had and used the existing currency, the cruzeiro but everything would still be listed in the real. Everyone was promised to receive their wages and pay for all the prices in the new currency. The inflation basically ended and the economy was turned around. Brazil became a major exporter and 20 million people rose out of poverty.

 

In 1932-33 Bank of France worried that the U.S. would not stick to the gold standard at the traditional price of $20.67 an ounce of gold. It asked the Federal Reserve Bank of New York to convert dollars in the U.S. into gold. They wanted to avoid shipping the gold overseas so it requested to keep the gold in the Bank of France’s account. The Federal Bank Reserve went to their gold vault and basically did what the German Government did in Yap, they put a label on their separate drawers which made it known that it was the property of the French. The markets saw the U.S. dollar as weaker and the French as stronger, that led to the banking panic of 1933.

 

This whole topic has left me with the conclusion that our money isn’t really ours whether we work for it or not. Years from now physical currency will no longer be a thing and all currency will be virtual. It makes me want me to save as much cash as I can before it comes to an end. Then again who knows if it would even be valuable. It sucks that we can’t trust our government, who knows what else could be going on behind the scenes. Let’s create our own, new and improved form of currency!

 

References

 

Friedman, Milton. “The Island of Stone Money.” Counterintuitive, Stanford University, Feb 1991, https://counterintuitive2015.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/stonemoneyessay.pdf

 

Glass, Ira. “The Invention of Money.” This American Life, 19 Feb. 2018, http://www.thisamericanlife.org/423/the-invention-of-money

 

Goldstein, Jacob, and David Kestenbaum. “The Island Of Stone Money.” NPR, NPR, 10 Dec. 2010, http://www.npr.org/sections/money/2011/02/15/131934618/the-island-of-stone-money.

Summaries- veleze

Summary 1:

https://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2014/05/01/editorials/wild-animal-population-control/#.W6A2NJNKhOx

It seems counterintuitive to try and cut the population of animals because of impact on ecosystems when they actually keep ecosystems balanced and serve a purpose in our lives.

The rapidly expanding deer and wild boar population in Japan is having an impact on the nation’s ecosystems. As of 2011 the population of deer exceeded 3.25 million, and 880,000 for the wild boars. Their government proposed an amendment to the law on animal protection, wanting to reduce the number of wildlife. Signs of the impact on ecosystems have been found in many of Japan’s national parks. People have found the bark on trees eaten off by deer, mudslides occurred where vegetation has been stripped, and alpine plants have been consumed. Emergency measures have been taken mainly at the initiative of municipalities to contain the damage by hunting and capturing the wild animals. Fences have also been put up to stop them from entering farmland but it hasn’t quite helped the issue.

One way or the other the wildlife helps us humans in many ways. They are all part of the food chain and also help fertilize land. Animals such as horses, mules, camels, elephants and cows are used to work and help transport goods all over. They also serve produce food for us humans. Therefore cutting their population will only damage us as well.

 

Summary 2:

https://sharperiron.org/article/why-marijuana-should-remain-illegal

It seems counterintuitive to try and make marijuana illegal when its been proven to be a vital medicine for patients today.

Alcohol is America’s number one drug that creates harm upon us all. It’s been said that the legalization of marijuana will only create more harm as it has led to an increase in crime and societal problems. Making the “drug” illegal is suppose to limit the practice of usage and punish abusers but the use of medical marijuana is a form of opening the door to the recreational use. Barrett Duke of the ERLC says that “Marijuana’s pain-relieving ingredient has been available by prescription for years. A person can purchase Marinol—right now—with a doctor’s prescription. The plain fact of the matter is that there are better and safer drugs [for pain]”.

Now in days if you go to the doctor and complain about pain he or she would never recommend any type of medical marijuana use without paying for it first-hand. A doctor will gladly prescribe opioids like percocets to a patient which is actually addictive, harmful, and very hard to get off which would include professional help.

Studies have shown that marijuana helps people with chronic nerve pain also known as neuropathic pain. It does not need to be “smoked” as it can be provided in different forms to help the patient.

Summary 3:

https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2018/03/12/the-gun-control-debate-after-parkland

 

It seems counterintuitive that putting a law on who can buy guns, would decrease the amount of crime that occurs.

Because of the mass school shooting that occurred in Parkland, Florida Marjory Stoneman Douglas High school advocates for stricter gun laws. Dick’s Sporting Goods announced that they would no longer carry assault-style rifles. However, with the idea of not being able to sell guns in this particular store, this doesn’t actually lower the rate of crime. In fact, more people will be inclined to purchase weapons illegally. Not allowing people to purchase guns, would not be beneficial for those who use these weapons as self-defense. This would explain the counterintuitive argument that keeping these weapons off of the street would eliminate crime completely, moreover, those that use these weapons as a sense of self-defense will not be able to do this.