Robust Verbs-muggastackz

Heroin addicts in Vancouver are committing crimes that support their habits. The type of crimes that the addicts commit are breaking and entering and or robbing to have money for more drugs. The “free heroin for addicts” program is doing everything possible to help people who really need it. The programs also keep addicts from using unsanitary needles which will lead them to hospitals. The programs will reduce the amount of crime and reduce the public health by keeping them off the streets by allowing them to receive the drug in the program. The idea behind the programs will help the city but will not fix the addiction the heroin addicts are facing.

Causal Argument- muggastackz

Society thinks if one than the other, which is not the case between these two. They are two entirely different sections. As stated before, crime rates are each crime per population that is recorded. Crime is the illegal act that someone does. Can police help reduce the crime rates? What ways are people in society affected by crime? How can we get lessen the amount of violent crime along with a reduction in non-violent crimes? If crime is happening so frequently, how can crime rates decrease, while crime increases?

Most crime occurs in the most popular cites or towns in that country. Because the crime will be prevalent in those cities, it all continue to happen. Let’s take a look at the crime rates in different regions of the country; to justify why crime rates are going down. Many areas will have different crime rates. In 2016, there were more than 600 violent crimes per 100,000 residents in Alaska, Nevada, New Mexico, and Tennessee. By contrast, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont had rates below 200 violent crimes per 100,000 residents. (Pew Research) Crime rates are dropping because the actual criminals that committed the homicide are incarcerated. Because they are locked up, the perpetrators aren’t going to commit the murder or severe crime. When previous crime commiters are locked up, the crime rates will go down. The Brennan Center report estimates that incarceration played even less of a role than that: up to 12 percent of the drop in property crime during the 1990s was due to the rise in incarceration, but it was probably more like 6 percent. And it contributed to 1 percent, at most, of the continued property crime decline in the 2000s. (Lind &Lopez) Murders are more likely to be reported to the police because they are easier to detect what happened. Not only is murder better recorded than other crimes, but there is less reason to think that the police have changed the way in which they record murders (Jencks). Reported crimes are what makes statistics go down each year. Several opinion-based surveys show that people in the nation think crime rates increase when it is actually going down.

Along with the fact that incarceration is a reason on why crime rates decrease; technology and the media plays a key role as well. If a child in an urban community is inside on their phones or playing games systems, they are less likely to be influenced by their neighborhoods friends. If technology weren’t around, they would be introduced to drugs, gangs, and other crimes at a young age; which reflects on how their life would be when they are seventeen or eighteen. Many people may think that this idea on technology helping children stay away from negative influences will help and won’t help at the same time. This idea could be a start to helping fix why crime rates are going down. Youth in society may also use technology to help with crime. They play violent video games with guns, drugs, and robbery. These games will introduce them, and they will go out in the world and rob and steal. When young kids pick up that robbery or theft trait, this allows them to commit crimes. When they are taught at a young age about non-violent crimes, crime will continue to increase each year.

The government and the police work together to try to reduce crime and how crime rates could drop. Knowing the fact that police and the social media platform play hand and hand, more people are trying to stay away from police or potentially committing an offense. Social media shows what happens to people who experience police brutality or discrimination. When people in society see the things that happen in the world, and they either will continue to do crime or stay away from crime. Social media can stretch a story out and make it bigger than what it is. They want us to perceive our expectations of crime. In an article talking about social media and crime, it states The study also indicates that although most of the individuals surveyed in the study felt individual criminal events were well reported by the news, most other facets of crime reporting were not.

These areas included risk factors for victimization, underlying causes of crime, overall crime tends, and police/community efforts to reduce crime (Brown). The criminal justice systems are starting to crack down on laws and enforcing the law which keeps people from getting killed. The police are finding new ways to help urban communities reduce the amount of crime and crime rates. Police and the government see that crime will increase each and every day so what can they do to fix everything. If police are brought on the street to help communities, less crime will happen. Lind and Lopez, writers for Vox. com writes, “while the number of police can affect crime rates, crime rates also affect the number of police. When crime rises, cities hire more police in response” (Lind & Lopez). It may be hard to find that many cops to help reduce crime but it is very possible that it can help as time goes on.  Police systems are trying to stay away from models that were used decades ago because these models didn’t help as much as the government thought they would. Lind and Lopez also state that Research on specific areas, as well as the US as a whole, found that hiring more police helped decrease crime (Lind & Lopez). Crime, in general, was worst decades ago then what it is now and those models didn’t affect anyway in society. Crime, drugs, and gangs were more so a problem in the 80’s, and 90’s then in the 00’s and present day.


Open Strong- muggastackz

Crime today is nowhere near close to how crime was in the 80’s and 90’s. There were way more murders and homicide than there are now. Knowing the fact that some sort of crime is happening as we speak, what is causing society to do this? Resulting in that these frequent, crime rates are dropping, the criminal activity is rising throughout the years.

According to the, a report states that there were an estimated 1,197,704 violent crimes committed around the nation. That is a big number but the amount of violent crime is actually deceasing in America. The crimes that are occurring every so often is small minor crimes like burglary or robbery. The crimes are reported more than mystery murders or homicide. In today’s society, crime rates are decreasing, while crime is increasing.





Definition: Crime

Crime is the illegal act that someone commits and is punished by the government. Many people in society find that crime in urban areas is frequent than it is in the suburbs or in rural areas; which is true. Crime is happening all over the place right now as we speak, regardless if its a small crime or something severe. Crime has fallen by roughly half, with violent crimes plummeting by roughly 51 percent and property crimes decreasing by about 43 percent. (Lind & Lopez) and this is why America has crime rates going down while crime continues to increase.

Over the past decade, it has been prevalent that crime rates have always been a problem in the country. Along with crime rates, the amount of crime has also been prevalent in the US. Americans in the U.S. think and know that violent crime is increasing daily. Violent crime increased between 1985-1990 when Reagan was in office. Crime rates and Violent crime play hand and hand in today’s society. The U.S. breaks the charts in murder rates and other crimes than other rich countries. Christopher Jenkins, a writer for The American Post, writes that murder rates are far higher in the United States than in Europe, Japan, or even Canada. (Jencks) He also states that as a nation, we also have more rapes, robberies, and assaults than other rich countries. The U.S. crime rates are very much higher than other nations who are affluent. Looking at other countries compared to the United States, it gives people in society reasons why our crime is increasing and why this continues to skyrocket throughout the years. The ideas behind both crime rates and crime are in fact false. Crime rates go down when crime goes up.

The term crime rate is the number of crimes that have been affected or told to the police. Members of society see a crime, and they want to report it, but they fear that will have a target on their back. People in the community feel that not reporting the crime rate will help the situation when in reality, everything is getting worse. More crimes will continue to happen if they aren’t reported to the police because the community will be afraid that they will be the next victims of the future crime committed. Burglaries/total population is the standard “crime rate” reported by the FBI and used by social scientists. (US Legal). These small crimes are being reported because these are homes of people or businesses being robbed, things like that have to be reported just in case the perpetrator returns these items, or the police find them. Joe Gorman, author for The Vindicator, shares statistics from a local town whose property crimes were reported.” The local numbers for property crimes – which the FBI classifies as burglaries, motor vehicle thefts, vandalism, and shoplifting – decreased slightly for local police departments. Nationally, the FBI said property crimes decreased 3 percent in 2017 from 2016.” (Gorman) These types of crimes will get reported because they are personal items that are being taken. What makes other serious crimes like homicide or murder nonreportable? All crime should be reported regardless of how much damage is done; this only helps the community better.

Many people may say that different areas of the country have all have the same crime rate; which is not true. Different regions of the country will have a higher crime rate or even high crime in that area than an another. In most urban areas the crime is what justifies the city. In Chicago or St.Louis they are always talked about for there crime. People barely hear about a crime that happens in Iowa or Montana. Most of the crime that occurs in urban cities are murders or homicides. In the rural areas, the crime committed is agricultural crimes. As stated before, different areas have different crime.  According to Statista, St.Louis had the highest violent crime in 2017. 2,082 crimes per 100,000 residents were recorded, and Detroit is running a close race with 2,057 crimes per 100,000. (Statista) These cities have a massive amount of police that can help stop crime. The smaller towns may have less policing because there aren’t many crimes that need to be reported.

It is prevalent that more crimes rates are starting to drop because the people that are out doing violent crimes like murders or homicide are incarcerated. The increased amount of incarceration rates allow there to be a reduction in crime. There was a 58 percent decline in violent crime because people were put in jail. (Lind & Lopez) If more people are being put in prison, those people were most likely the ones who were doing the severe crimes are put in jail this allows crime rates to drop because this would be considered a violent crime. Petty crimes would only result in minor offenses, even though they may happen frequently; the statistical analysis for crime rates wouldn’t be so high. When the more serious crimes are reported this would give the nation as a whole a decline in crime rates.


“Crime Rate Law and Legal Definition. ”

Gorman, Joe, ” Local Crime Rates Close to National Trends”, The Vindicator, 28 September 2018.

Jencks, Christopher, “Is Violent Crime Increasing?” , The American Prospect,

Lind, Dara & Lopez, German, “16 Theories for Why Crime Plummeted in the US”Vox, 20 May 2015.

“U.S. Most Dangerous Cities in North America by Crime Rate”









Visual Rhetoric- muggastackz





0:01- The clip starts off in the daytime as a Caucasian hand turns on the car. The person turns the key clockwise to start the engine of the vehicle.

0:02-0:03- As the hand finishes turning the key until the car starts, the scene flips to home footage of a Caucasian baby girl laying on her back showing a smile as the camera continues to the next scene.

0:04-0:05- A message pops up on the iPhone screen from Kenzie on Friday, March 6 at 6:24  as.king “Wanna hang out tonight.” When looking at the image, looks like the phone is placed the ashtray.

0:06-0:07- As the iMessage fades out, another home footage of a six or seven-year-old little girl opening up gifts on Christmas morning. She shows whoever is behind the camera that she is excited about the gifts that she received for Christmas.

0:08-0:09- The video shows that she is about to grab the phone to look at the text or respond to her friend’s text before she starts driving.

0:11-0:12- A happy teenage girl with ginger hair is playing the cello while her music teacher plays the piano.

0:15-0:16- As the teenager begins to drive, she begins to look at her phone and also look at the road. She is in driving through her neighborhood focusing on both the road and the text.

0:17 -It’s graduation day! A beautiful day outside and the same happy girl smiling with her cap and gown. She is pleased while her family is taking pictures in her backyard.

0:18-0:19- The scene is back to the young teenager driving. As she looks down at her phone, she looks up, and she gasps in shock. A black screen comes up saying ” Don’t end your life with a text.”

0:20-0:30- The black screen continues to stay up as another phrase pops up. The phrase says, ” Drive distraction-free.” The website pops up along with organizations that helped with the no texting ad.


White Paper- muggastackz

The Essential Content of the Article: This article provides information regarding social media outlets and how they are the reasons why crimes are becoming more and more prevalent. The idea behind this article is; are crimes rates increasing nationwide because social media allows us to perceive how the crimes are being done. It gave percentages on the difference between crime rates then and crime rates now.

What it proves: The article explains how the media can inform us about a crime that happens nationwide. Along with the idea that all of this information may not be true; people believe that crime rates are increasing. The more significant crimes get put on the social media platform to prove that crime will continue to grow. The FBI gives statistics that violent crimes across the nation are slowly decreasing reasonable crime rates are starting to rise.


The Essential Content of the Article: This article explains how murder rates are rising in cities. In many cities, homicide rates are increasing while the regular crimes like burglary are slowly decreasing. The article provides credible people like a chief of polices, a criminologist and a mayor to give information on why these rates are increasing.

What it proves: This article demonstrates that crime rates are increasing as actual crime is decreasing. In small cities, murder rates are rising due to environmental effects like a bad neighborhood. The data in this article is valid because there are people who have done research on this idea to prove that there is an increase with rates and a decrease in crime.

The Essential Content of the Article: The article talks about how crimes are increasing by racial and social groups. The article gives data regarding on the ages of different groups and how they affect crime rates in America. Political people give their thoughts on how the criminal justice system works.

What it proves: The article provides information on how people in society are affected by the criminal justice system and what makes these crime increase. Different races and social groups will do crime differently than others. People who abuse drugs do crimes as well to affect people in society. This article provides thoughts on why crime increase along with why do people do these crimes.

The Essential Content of the Article: This article gives statistical data regarding local cities that mirror national crime rates. The article talks about two local towns whose homicide rates increased as well as decreased.  Chief of Police from the local cities made remarks on why these crimes are frequently happening and how things could lower the crime rates.

What it proves: This article proves that there could be possible ways on why murder rates keep increasing as crime will as actual small crimes are less prevelant in cities. This information helps with the credible sources and statistical data by having the increase or decrease from year to year.

The Essential Content of the Article: The main idea of this article is about how crimes have dropped in the U.S. This article reflects on how crime in the 90s has changed from then to now. There are questions and answers to why certain things have changed dealing with crime.

What it proves:  This proves that the crime rates have going upward. Even when they decrease, they still continue to increase. This article provides information for each region and how their rates different from others. This also gives details on how policing works along with how the economy works with the criminal justice system and the crimes that are happening.



PTSD Claims – muggastackz

Brannan Vines has never been to war, but her husband, Caleb, was sent to Iraq twice, where he served in the infantry as a designated marksman. He’s one of 103,200, or 228,875, or 336,000 Americans who served in Iraq or Afghanistan and came back with PTSD, depending on whom you ask, and one of 115,000 to 456,000 with traumatic brain injury.

  1. This is a quantitative claim. These numbers don’t reflect back on Caleb having PTSD. There isn’t enough evidence to prove that he is one of the men who have from serving in Iraq or Afghanistan.
  2. These numbers jump from one to another. What makes each number different from the next? The statistical data doesn’t make sense to use as evidence to prove that PTSD is contagious.

Imagine your nervous system spiking, readying you as you feel your way along the walls, the sensitivity of your hearing, the tautness in your muscles, the alertness shooting around inside your skull. And then imagine feeling like that all the time.

3. This is a factual claim. The author is trying to show the effects of how PTSD works and what it’s like to live with PTSD. She wants the reader to understand the symptoms of what Caleb deals with every day.

4. This claim could be beneficial when evaluating if PTSD is contagious or not. This piece of writing could also be helpful when trying to get others who don’t have PTSD to see what someone who is diagnosed with PTSD.

She has not, unlike military wives she advises, ever been beat up. Nor jumped out of her own bed when she got touched in the middle of the night for fear of being raped, again.

5. This is a comparative claim. She groups herself with other military housewives. Some of these military housewives may also be experiencing their spouses PTSD like Brannan does.

6. She explains that she hasn’t been abused or beaten up by her husband and has never felt scared to be around him.

You can’t see Caleb’s other wound, either. It’s called traumatic brain injury, or TBI, from multiple concussions. In two tours, he was in at least 20 explosions—IEDs, vehicle-borne IEDs, RPGs.

7.  This is a definition claim. This explains what a traumatic brain injury and how they are found upon which is due to multiple concussions.

8. This is also a Numerical Claim. “In two hours, he was in at least 20 explosions.”  This claim shows the number of explosions in a certain amount of time.

Stone Money- muggastackz

What is the whole point of money? Money is key in today’s society. The significance of money has been around for decades. Most people in my generation would say, “If you ain’t getting money, then what you doing?” Money is power and that is what everyone needs to help them get through life. In general, money is supposed to make people happy. This green paper bill allows people to purchase items that are needed, but is that all the money can do? Money is generally the root of all evil! Money can cause depression, financial stress, divorce and gambling problems. Is money significantly important to society or is it just a social problem that keeps the world going? It amazes me how much money is in the world right now currently being spent.

Money can come in any shape or form. A small country in the Pacific Ocean called Yap created their own source of money. The way they created this was from limestone. But they created this stone to be a huge rock deposit. The people on the island Yap knew that they had to make things do with the resources on the small island. They realized that they needed to put value into this mass stone. When I first listened to the podcast by NPR, I would have never thought a rock could be a source of money for people.  Milton Friedman talks about the island of Yap in his research report called “The Island of Stone Money”. He shares that the Yap islanders brought their own manifestation of wealth by creating the stone money (Friedman 4). Also, their source is worth a significant amount of money even when it isn’t being used.

Some objects that we have today are known to be materialistic items. Purses, shoes, clothes, cars, etc. Personally, I am one of those people who spend money frequently and focuses on stuff that money shouldn’t be deprived on. When spending money on objects that have no degree or meaning to life isn’t helpful in society. The items you purchase shows where you come from and how much money you have. We as people see famous celebrities or business gurus with their items that they purchase with all of the wealth we have. Rappers spending thousands of dollars at jewelry stores and strip clubs; causally throwing money down the drain. People who are “rich” or “wealthy” don’t care about their money as much. These people know that they will always have money that can just be replaced with another movie deal or music video. Their value of money isn’t the same as regular citizens idea of money. The idea of money can come from several perspectives; everyone sees the value of money differently.

Money has definitely changed over time. As decades went on, technology has come through over the years to show that spending money can be in different forms than just cash, coins, and checks. Society can use cards through apps to transfer and receive money. Apple products can now pay for food and other items through there device. There once was a time you had to go to a store and actually purchase items. People don’t have to get out of bed to do any shopping. Technology and money go hand in hand in today’s world. Linking your credit or debit card will have us to make purchases whenever we want. Money has also changed by people converting money into bitcoins or people trading Forex. By watching the charts or letting money sit will give you some fast money in just a couple days. More people find the easy way out to make quick money and it seems to be working just fine for some people. I tried to make fast money by doing Forex for a couple weeks and surprisingly I made a couple hundred dollars by just marking up my stock charts and picking good currencies to trade with. Everyday money is changing as the years go on.

Even the way money looks its starting to change throughout the years. The faces of paper bills have changed several times decades after decades. The. bigger bills like 20, 50 and 100 are always switching up from the original. The $100 bill would have new enhancements while the smaller bills (ex: $1 or $2 bill) would receive no improvements(Mcmorrow-Hernandez). When creating new enhancements to the bills, people of today’s society are always thinking of ways to make “fast money”, counterfeit money is being used each day for spending. Along with making counterfeit money, bad money checks are being used get $1000s of dollars within hours. People put too much thought into having fast money. My mother always told me, “Fast money isn’t good money.” Stated previously, money can cause problems that could jeopardize futures.

When it comes to different terms regarding money, they are always misinterpreted. Society gets the term wealth and the term rich mixed up. Wealth is the idea of having valuable possessions that are abundance over time. Being rich is having money at the moment for big success. Cash is the paper form of money, people use cash sometimes due to the fact that there are debit and credit cards. The value of money goes hand and hand. Each amount of money has a different value, every bill, a coin has a significant value than another. The form of money can be converted through several forms. An ATM helps transfer money in and out for people to make deposits and withdrawals. The ATM is also known as an electronic bank machine.

the importance of money is very valuable. It could be for valuable for people who are rich or poor. The idea that money isn’t everything, isn’t true. Money holds a lot of power to society. It is how we get our household items, personal items, cars,  houses etc. Without money or another form of money, what would we do and how will we react each day if money wasn’t in demand?


Friedman, Milton. “The Island of Stone Money.” Counterintuitive, Stanford University, Feb 1991.

Glass, Ira. “The Invention of Money.” This American Life, 19 Feb 2018.

Hernandez-McMorrow, Joshua. “How Paper Currency Has Changed In Our Lifetime.” CoinWeek, May 23, 2017.


My Hypothesis – muggastackz

  1. Crime rates in the United States
  2. Crime rates decrease and increase
  3. When crime rates decline, crime will also increase over time.
  4. In the United States, there is a decrease in crime rates even as the crime goes up.
  5.  When society plays a key role, crime rates are decreasing and also increasing.
  6. The community and other social outlets affect the decrease in crime rates as well as crime increasing each day.

Summaries- muggastackz

It is counterintuitive that social media plays a crucial role in what we should perceive when hearing the daily news. In today’s news, we only hear about police brutality and or racism that is starting to happen more frequently because there is a significant growth of crime rates that are vastly becoming a national crisis due to social media news.

81 percent of Americans access social media for news coverage every day. Because society only sees what they actually see. Statistics from the FBI show that there is a decrease of 4.4 percent in crime that deals with homicides or violent crimes. Regardless of what society, they are usually given the wrong information. Crime rates have decreased drastically in the last 40 years. The news we see on social media aren’t credible enough to say they play a role in crime rates.

It is counterintuitive that marijuana doesn’t kill brain cells. In today’s society, people think that smoking marijuana will kill brain cells later on in life. In fact, there has been researching shown that marijuana affects an older person brain and the results from that are very different from the brain of a younger person who smokes marijuana. Some scientists aren’t aware of the relationship between the two and how it will affect someone in the long run. Marijuana and the brain are in a relationship with one another, smoking weed technically doesn’t kill brain cells, but it can affect the gray matter in the brain at a young age depending on when you start.

It is counterintuitive to think that there aren’t rapes happening every day in the United States. More rapes are happening every day, and they are even more prevalent on college campuses. Most of these rapes happen due to parties that students attend. When alcohol is involved the perpetrators find that these females are easy targets. 70% of victims don’t inform the police about the incident, and 25% of the reported assaults ended up eventually getting arrested. It isn’t just females who are also being sexually assaulted. Males are also victims when dealing with sexual assault. 1 and 6 men suffer from sexual abuse at an early age. Society doesn’t acknowledge how many rapes are happened every day, month, year, etc. If people in society become more aware of the sexual assaults, there wouldn’t be as many rapes in the United States.