Causal Argument- beachgirl04

There’s a lot more to it.

Many individuals wisely drink water to avoid dehydration. But they do so without knowing what happens to a dehydrated body or whether water is the best preventative. Dehydrated bodies don’t necessarily lose consciousness from a lack of water, but the health consequences are serious nonetheless. Inside the bodies of athletes doing strenuous exercise—or even couch potatoes clicking the remote—fluid lack can permit dangerous body temperature changes or disregulate blood flow to vital organs and the brain. There’s no excuse to risk ill-health when drinking, on average, eight 8-ounce glasses of liquid every day can prevent it.

Body fluid balance is controlled by both physiological and behavioral actions. However, when there is lack of fluid availability, exposure to extreme environments, or illness, inability to maintain fluid balance can seriously jeopardize health and the ability to perform. The terms euhydration, hypohydration, and hyperhydration will be used. Euhydration defines a normal, narrow fluctuation in body water content, whereas the terms hypohydration and hyperhydration define, respectively, a general deficit (hypohydration) and surfeit (hyperhydration) in body water content beyond normal (Kenefick, 71). This is why it has always been important for athletes to “stay hydrated” and “to drink a lot of water before they perform” because their ability will be affected by the amount of liquid inside of their body. However, when someone gets dehydrated one time they feel as if they have to drink an excessive amount of water; hyper-hydration which could be just as bad for them and could mess up the balance of their inside cells.  Dehydration has a large impact on the internal body systems, this article was written referring to the army soldiers since they are individuals who are out in the heat of a desert for countless hours each and everyday and they do not have a choice.

Hydration takes time, you can’t become hydrated from taking a sip of a cup of water every other hour. That is for sure not healthy and not going to help you stay away from the negative effects that dehydration has on you. It is obvious that dehydration is more likely to happen to athletes because of how much they perform. But in a study there was high school student athletes who lost weight by restricting fluids because they were required to do so. Cardiac output, heart rate, stoke volume, and oxygen difference were measured in 16 high school wrestlers during exercise at normal weight, after a four or five percent weight loss, and following one hour of rehydration. Weight losses were accomplished over 48 hours by fluid and food restriction as well as intermittent exercise. It was concluded that despite a short rehydration period, the cardiovascular dynamics of these high school wrestlers rapidly returned to normal during moderately heavy work because of the small plasma changes that accompanied the 48-hour weight loss (Allen, 159-163). Drinking water has such an impact on individuals bodies, in these wrestlers who had lost weight it was because they were not drinking water at the time but after a quick rehydration period their body returned to normal. For athletes and anyone else who exercises regularly, Exercising while dehydrated has some effects on the thermoregulatory system and may negate the physiologic advantages resulting from increased fitness and heat acclimization. The human body is composed of about 65% water, separated into extracellular and intracellular fluid. With exercise comes changes in hydrostatic and osmotic pressure (Casa ,249). There are even performance implications that come with dehydration among athletes such as 3% to 4% dehydration elicits a performance decrement and that environmental conditions can also play a role in performance not just dehydration. It is more likely that a wrestler experiences problems with performance because of hypo-hydration then immediate hyper-hydration (Casa, 250).

The amount of changes that occur in the human body as result of having water in it or not having water in it are beyond belief. It does not only effect a body physically and cause someone to pass out when they are not consuming enough water but it effects the cells of one’s insides. This article provides a comprehensive review of dehydration assessment and presents a unique evaluation of the dehydration and performance literature. The importance of osmolality and volume are emphasized as the single most essential aspect of dehydration assessment. No clear threshold or plausible mechanisms support the impairment in strength observed with dehydration. Similarly, the potential for dehydration to impair cognition appears small. The impact of dehydration on any particular sport skill or task is therefore likely dependent upon the makeup of the task itself (Cheuvront). The insides of our body are not balanced when there is not enough water inside, for example there is a linear regression of plasma volume change and body mass change after athletes sweat out water (closer to dehydration) but when we are drinking water whether it is a normal amount of an excessive amount our volume changes and rises. Each physiologic system in the human body is influenced by whether or not the dehydration is severe or not (Casa, 249).


Dehydration and Rehydration. Book Chapter- Wilderness Medicine Textbook. 2012. Retrieved from

Dehydration: Physiology, Assessment, and Performance Effects.Wiley Online Library.  (10 Jan 2014). Retrieved from

Exercise in the Heat. I. Fundamentals of Thermal Physiology, Performance Implication, and Dehydration. Journal of Athletic Training. (1999.) Retrieved from

Hemodynamic response to submaximal exercise after dehydration and rehydration in high school wrestlers. 1 Jan 1977. Retrieved from


Causal- beachgirl04

Professor Hodges, I could use some help getting started with my causal argument. Should I state that dehydration is caused from not drinking water or that a way to avoid dehydration is to stay hydrated? I know that there is a connection between both hydration and dehydration but I am unsure on how to write 1000 words on this, I also am stuck on what type of sources to search for in order to support or oppose what I am trying to say. I do not want to go in the wrong direction and I also do not want this to be too similar to my definition argument that I posted last week. What is your opinion on how I should approach this argument?

  • When you do not drink enough water you can become dehydrated and possibly pass out.
  • Dehydration is caused from not hydrating enough, the amount of water needed to stay hydrated is eight, 8-ounce classes daily.
  • The effects of dehydration are….. while the cause of all this is not drinking enough water.

Definition- beachgirl04

We have always been told to drink water and the importance of drinking water but we really do not know what would happen to our body if we did not drink water. The term hydration is emphasized as well as dehydration. However, do we know what dehydration actually means or what will happen to our bodies if we do not have any water inside of it, there could be so many different meanings behind the word “dehydration”. Water loss dehydration is one of the two types of dehydration also known as hyperosmolar and occurs either because of increased sodium or glucose. It is said that dehydration is rarely due to neglect from formal or informal care givers, but rather results from a combination of physiological and disease processes (Thomas,292-301). The other type of dehydration is referred to as salt and water loss dehydration or hyponatremia.

Dehydration has always been thought of as an unpleasant occurrence that individuals experience. There are hydration tests that athletes take part in because of how bad dehydration is for them specifically. Dehydration reduces athletic performance and also puts athletes at risk for bad injuries and sometimes even death. For athletes, specifically it is crucial to stay hydrated because it will affect their performance tremendously. Monitoring hydration has significant value in maximizing performance during training and competition (Oppliger, 959-971). We know that drinking water is key for athletes because it affects how they play and without hydration could cause injuries but have we ever wondered what water is doing that causes our bodies to need it so badly. Dehydration can occur before exercise (hypo-hydration) or it can develop during exercise (exercise induced dehydration). Being involved in sports is when we hear it most often that it is important to always drink water before and after practice and that is because water is what helps regulate our body temperature and allow our muscles to contract, also our body keeps a normal body temperature by sweating out water which occurs during exercise.

In contrast to athletes being dehydrated and getting injured as a result of that there is also such thing as overhydrating. Over-hydration normally occurs to people who are involved in exercise that last longer than three hours, this is because the amount of sweat increased which causes the athlete to not have enough sodium in their blood stream. However, excessive overdrinking should be avoided because it can also compromise physical performance and health (Casa, 212). In the past, there has been examples of individuals whose blood sodium falls to a low level and their brain swells, which can result in seizures, coma, and death. When individuals do not know how much they should drink it is not smart to just keep drinking. The amount of water an athlete should drink depends on their volume of sweat and the sodium concentration of their sweat, both of which can vary depending on aerobic fitness, exercise intensity and ambient temperature(SportMedBC).

There are constant concerns with athletes and how much water they should be drinking or not drinking but hydration is still important for everyone else in the world. If we were outside at a three-day festival and did not have enough water in our system, would we would pass out? Would our brain dry out? Would our body shut down? Dehydration has so many effects on our body that are not all good and somehow not all bad. Dehydration does cause an increase in the concentration of body fluids, changes in the organ masses, evaporative water loss diminished and water reabsorption increased. Dehydration challenges the water balance and also decreases the water flux (Anderson, 313). Dehydration will not affect the body that others can physically see and tell us that we are dehydrated but the insides of our body start to experience difficulty and cannot function as well without having enough water in our system. Individuals may feel like they are going to pass out because their blood volume decreases and that cause blood pressure to drop which leads to not having enough blood and oxygen in our brain and that can also force us to feel like we are going to pass out.

In order to not get dehydrated, we need to be aware of how to stay hydrated and the process that it takes to have enough water in our system in order to maintain a healthy lifestyle. At the end of the day being dehydrated is extremely bad for us as humans. Depending on the lifestyle that each of us live, it is important that we must drink at least half of our body weight in ounces of water daily and that is because our bodies are made up of 55-75% water and we do in fact lose water daily by breathing. Some do not enjoy drinking plain old water, it is a suggestion to eat certain foods that we can get water from; the best source is fruits and veggies (McArthur).

Hydrating is not something that someone can force on us, we must force ourselves to stay hydrated and to drink enough water because it has so many different benefits and prevents us from getting dehydrated. Being dehydrated will not cause death, it can but it is not something that awful instead it will affect the inside organs of our body as important as an individual’s brain. However, the constant instruction to drink water and stay hydrated when we are going to be outside for long hours or are going to participate in exercise is important. Our body needs it, it depends on water in so many different ways.



“Are you drinking enough water?” 2016, Jun 10. The Spectrum.

“Hydration Testing of Athletes” Springerlink. December 2002.

“Hyponatemia or Overhydration- Who is at Risk? “ SportMedbc. 2017.

“Not Good, but Not All Bad: Dehydration Effects on Body Fluids, Organ Masses, and Water Flux through the Skin of Rhinella schneideri (Amphibia, Bufonidae)” . The University of Chicago Press Journals. 3 January 2017.




Open Strong- beachgirl04

We are always instructed to hydrate, to keep drinking water when you are going to be outside all day or before a sporting event. Have you ever thought to yourself why or what would happen if you did not listen to those people who told you to do that? Do you really know what it means to hydrate and in contrast what it means to be dehydrated. It is important to know the difference between hydration and dehydration because they are both key parts to staying healthy. It may not be such a bad thing to be dehydrated, there is so much more to it.

When you drink water, take a minute to think yourself how much water does your body really need. Do you know there is such thing as drinking too much water? Not many people realize that drinking too much water may be just as harmful as not drinking any water. Of course drinking water helps your body but it is crucial to know when you are just drinking water or when you are overhydrating. Death by over-hydration can happen even though it is rare.

Visual Rewrite—beachgirl04

“Play Catch with Her”

0:00-0:03- Five steps from the ocean and a very calm sea, an apparently young man in long pants and a long- sleeved shirt with sunglasses to block the glare of the sun kicks a beach ball into the air over his head. The boy kicks the ball lightly because he is having a pass with a young girl. The camera shows us a wide view of the beach to show the boy as well as the young girl. It is either dawn or sundown and we are aware of that because of the long thin shadow. The boy is only paying to attention to what is in front of him because the girl is running toward him and makes an attempt to jump upward to get the ball he has kicked. The girl is younger than he who is dressed in pink knee-length leggings and a loose pink top. She runs towards the ball and is very happy, she throws her arms above her head to track the ball’s fall in order to catch it. After the boy kicked the ball into the air he follows it to watch where it will fall but lets the girl catch it after a small bounce. He kicked the ball up for the young girl and wants her to enjoy the time they are spending together on the beach. She puts her tiny arms around as much of the ball as possible as the scene shifts. This perhaps is a brother and a sister or a father and daughter spending some quality time together on the beach doing something they enjoy doing.

0:04- The scene completely shifts and moves from a beach scene to an open field with a white sided house in the background behind multiple different bare trees. There is a man who looks to be in his 20’s or 30’s standing in the dew covered grass wearing a hat, a jacket and light blue jeans. He looks as if he is about to throw something winding up with his right arm as his throwing arm and the left arm in front, putting more pressure on his back-right leg while the left leg is lifted off of the ground a tiny amount. The season looks to be as if it fall due to the jeans and jacket the man is wearing and the lack of leaves on the trees that are near the house. The man quickly releases the baseball with not much force behind his throw, I do not know where the ball is going it could either be to another person or just to open field. He could not have much force behind his throw because maybe he is throwing it to a younger individual or maybe he is a weak individual. The camera is at a little bit below eye level a good distance away from the man.

0:05- The scenes change again and shows a young girl around the age of 4 or 5 of color dressed in flips flops twice her size, a blue and white skirt and a light grey short sleeve shirt is catching a small blow up colorful beach ball in a fenced in backyard from another person but the other person is not pictured. The sun is setting behind her. She looked frightened and shuts her eyes as the ball is coming into her bent arms. The grass is not the healthiest grass, there are many patches of dead grass and very few patches of bright green grass.

0:06- The camera shifts over to show the other little girl who is smaller than her sister dressed in a short-sleeve shirt and long blue jeans. She is having a catch in the same backyard with her sister using the small colorful beach ball. The father who is a big man of color wearing a short-sleeve button up black shirt and dark blue jeans strots out to the backyard to see his two daughters spending time together. He looks interested in getting involved with his arms out to receive if they decide to involve him in their pass and begins having a conversation with his daughters. This could be similar to the other scenes shown while a dad is involved with their children’s play.

0:07- Change of scenery again, the camera moves inside to a very nice kitchen with stainless steel appliances, the fridge has magnets all over it which shows there are most likely children who live in the house and white cabinets with silver knobs. There is a young girl with dirty blonde hair past her shoulders dressed in a blue princess dress who is running out of the kitchen very quickly as if someone is calling her name or the doorbell just rung.

0:08- A teenage boy in a dark long sleeve shirt is standing outside of a nice set of garage doors with the windows at the top and the door panels below it, the garage doors are tan during night time tossing something up in the air to himself.

0:10- The camera shifts back inside into the kitchen, stainless steel refrigerator, white cabinets and granite counter tops behind the young girl with of a father and a daughter in her teenage years having a pass with a volleyball outside of their house as it gets later into the night, it is not extremely dark out but the house light is helping these individuals see what they are doing. The blue sky is still pictured and shows through some of the trees. They volley the ball back and forth while moving around. The father is in gray shorts and a white t shirt while the daughter is in a pink hoodie and dark shorts which makes me believe that it is a summer night.

0:16- The scene changes and there is a teenage girl at sunset jumping into a backyard pool about to catch some sort of ball from an individual not pictured. She is midstride into the pool wearing a bikini and her hair pulled back with her arms fully extended into the air. There is an umbrella and a pair of chairs that are placed at the end of the pool along with a couple different planters on the cement that surrounds that pool, there is a big white fence that encloses the pool with a few trees and a red roofed house on the other side of that fence.

0:17- The girl wearing a blue bikini with her dark hair pulled up into a bun catches the ball and jumps into the pool, she is submerged under water and pops her head back up with her hair in her eyes and has a huge smile on her face and looks like she is ready to laugh about what had just happened. I am sure she is shocked that she actually the ball that was thrown. The pool has a glare on it that makes the water look a lot darker than normal light blue pool water.

0:19- The camera changes scenes again and moved to a softball field, where a tall girl with dark hair in a baggy grey t shirt and navy blue softball pants is winding up to pitch a bright yellow softball at a very fast speed. She is right handed and holds the glove in her left hand. Blue skies and a few clouds are in the sky.

0:20- The girl who just released her pitch on the softball field is pitching to her father who is dressed with a navy blue polo, navy and white hat, sunglasses and shorts who caught the ball while squatting behind home plate with the glove in his right hand. They are practicing his daughter’s pitching skills and he looks like he is ready to compliment her on her last pitch because he uses his left hand and points to her and begins speaking.

0:23- The camera moves to an older man with grey combed over hair dressed in a light blue short-sleeve shirt in the night time who has a football in his right hand. He is ready to pass it to someone who is not pictured. The houses behind the man look as though they are in Florida because of the palm trees pictured. There is a white house behind him as well as a black mini-van.

0:24: The camera zooms out and shows the man throwing the football to a woman with her hair pulled back and shows the back of her head as she puts both of her arms in the air to intercept the pass. The man and the women are about 15 feet apart in the middle of a street, it looks as if they are in a colt sack because of how the two houses pictured are positioned.

0:25- The ad transitions into a black screen with white writing for the remainder of the video “It only takes a moment to make a moment.” The author of this video could mean it only takes a moment to make an impact on someone’s life. For instance, in all of the different scenes throughout this video it only took a moment to make a child’s day by spending some quality time with them.


Safer Saws- beachgirl04

Source 1
In the article “Bosch Tools SawStop Lawsuit” there many major tool manufacturers who take offense to making safety devices mandatory on products like table saws. They have stated technical, practical/financial problems that comes with mandating SawStop technology. Below are some of the claims made:

  • The additional cost to manufacturers to implement this technology is estimated to be between $150-$200 per product, an amount that will be passed on to the consumer.
  • Gass (SawStop) is asking for 8 percent licensing/royalties on the wholesale price of each saw sold, a figure that many manufacturers view as near-extortion and monopoly position. This fee would also be passed on to consumers.
  • “False positives” or “nuisance trips” produce downtime and expenses. False positives can trip on common materials such as moist wood (think freshly delivered pressure treated lumber).
  • A false trip mandates replacement of the brake mechanism which is an expensive piece (~$59)
  • A false trip mandates replacement of the saw blade, since it is unknown whether the carbide teeth may be jarred or broken loose – creating a hazard. As most pros know, blades can be upwards of $100 each
  • During a braking event, carbide teeth could be thrown through the blade opening
  • Existing Underwriters Laboratories document ANSI/UL 987 includes provisions for maintaining safe distance from saw blades and instructions for proper use.
  • The “court is out” on how a high-impact braking mechanism will affect smaller jobsite table saws.
  • Consumer choice can dictate whether this technology, and its associated potential issues and added cost, will gain widespread acceptance by consumers
  • A low percentage of the 30,000 annual (U.S.) table saw injuries are due to contact with the blade – most are from kickback.

The claims that are made by the power-tool industry are factual claims. These are factual claims because of the factual information given as well as the data to back up the claim. Each of the claims made are persuasive as they are trying to provide implications of the SawStop. For example, one of the claims mentions a false trip.

Source 2
In the article “10 amputations a day: the need for a safer table saw” there are several statements concerning and stating why there is a need for a safer table saw. Stated in the article by Savvy Consumer

“10 amputations a day and thousands more injuries every year is an unacceptable toll when a ready fix is affordable, available, and waiting.”

This is an ethical or moral claim because it is a type of evaluative claim that is making judgement on the social situation of that of needing a safer table saw because of the injuries and amputations the current one is causing. This claim is reasonable as it is giving factual information to support why they should be receiving a new, safer table and why they are so anxious to get it approved.

Source 3
In the article “Power Tool Industry Defends Table Saw Safety as Disabling Injuries Increase” the author claims that

The SawStop story is about an industry’s ability to resist a major safety advance that could, by now, have prevented countless disfiguring injuries, but might have been bad for business.

This is an evaluative claim, it involves judgement that can be arguable and can be supported with evidence. In this claim it is being evaluated that with the new technology there would be less injuries but it could also have been bad for the business. I agree with the claim being made because there are a lot of problems that come about with the SawStop saws. I feel it does not matter how much the saw costs but they need to be more concerned about the injuries the saws are causing.

Source 4
In the news letter from Chairman Inez M. Tenenbaum the statement is made:

I want to emphasize that the injuries resulting from the use of table saws are, in many cases, particularly gruesome.

Chairman Inez M. Tenenbaum is addressing all of the issues with the table saw blade contact injuries.

The claim being made in source four is a causal claim, it is the consequences of the use of the table saws. The use of the table saws are causing injuries that are gruesome most of the time. This claim being made is quality as well as facts due to all of the injuries that are occurring as a result of the use of the table saws. Again, the table saws need to be renewed.

Source 5
In the article “ Table Saw Injury Lawyer” the lawyer makes a claim:

Every year, there are over 40,000 table saw injuries, resulting in more than 4,000 amputations. Table saws cause more injuries than any other woodworking tool.

The lawyer is making a factual claim as well as a causal claim. The question being answered in the article is “How many people are injured?” The lawyer uses factual information which is also a result of the use of the table saws. Table saws are causing more injuries than any other tool that is used. This is a quality claim being made by the lawyer because it should be an eye opener to people when they see how many people are injured or need surgery as a result of the table saws. I feel that the table saw is such an awful tool, it makes me question why people are still using them when they know what is happening to others.



Visual Rhetoric- beachgirl04

0:00- There is a boy who looks to be in about his teenage years playing with a beach ball on the beach and a little girl mid stride running over towards the boy with the beach ball. The beach is empty and it looks as if the sun is beginning to rise behind the two people, the weather must be a little bit chilly because they are dressed in long pants and a long sleeve shirt.

0:01- The boy kicks the beach ball high into the air and the little girl dressed in all pink runs towards it to try and catch it with her arms all the way up in the air.

0:03- The ball hit the ground finally and bounces into the little girls arms, she put her entire body over the beach ball as the man who kicked it backs away towards the ocean a little bit.

0:04- The scene completely changes and moves from a beach scene to an open field with a house in the background a little bit of a distance away. There is a man standing in the dew covered grass looks as if he is about to throw something a far distance away. The season looks to be as if it Fall due to the jeans and jacket the man is wearing and the lack of leaves on the trees. The man quickly releases a baseball to someone who is a distance away.

0:05- The camera changes scenes again and shows a young girl of color catching a small blown up beach ball in a fenced in backyard from another person but the other person is not pictured. The sun is setting behind her and she looks scared to death while the ball is coming into her arms. The little girl is wearing flip flops twice her foot size.

0:06- The camera shifts over to show the other little girl who is having a catch with her sister using the small beach ball. The father walks out to the backyard to see his two daughters spending time together, he looks interested in getting involved.

0:07- Change of scenery again, the camera moves inside to a very nice kitchen with stainless steel appliances and white cabinets. There is a young girl dressed in a blue princess dress who is running out of the kitchen very quickly as if someone is calling her name.

0:08- A teenage boy is standing outside of a nice set of garage doors during night time tossing something up in the air to himself.

0:10- The camera goes back inside into the kitchen, stainless steel refridgator behind the young girl dressed in a princess dress as she catches an orange and looks so ecstatic about it.

0:12- The camera is in a living or family room showing the front window that is very large, there is a father and a daughter outside hitting a very big ball back and forth about 8 feet apart from one another. Looks as if they are spending some quality time together in the nice weather.

0:14- In this shot the camera only shows a backyard that is big in size and a young girl receiving a soccer pass from someone who is not pictured. She is running with the soccer ball and looks very happy. She stops the ball and turns around with it.

0:15- Another scene is captured and that is a father and a daughter in her teenage years having a night time pass with a volleyball outside of their house. They volley the ball back and forth while moving around.

0:16- The scene changes and there is a teenage girl at sunset jumping into a backyard pool about to catch some sort of ball from an individual not pictured. She is midstride into the pool with her arms fully extended into the air.

0:17- The girl catches the ball and jumps into the pool, she goes under water and pops her head back up and has a huge smile on her face because she caught the ball as many people can’t do that.

0:19- The camera changes scenes again and moved to a softball field, where a tall girl is winding up to pitch a softball at a very fast speed.

0:20- The girl who just released her pitch on the softball field is pitching to her father who caught the ball at home plate. They are practicing his daughter’s pitching skills and he looks like he is ready to compliment her on her last pitch.

0:23- The camera moves to an older man in the night time who has a football in his hand and is ready to pass it to someone who is not pictured. The houses behind the man look as though they are in Florida because of the palm trees pictured.

0:24: The camera zooms out and shows the man throwing the football to a woman but shows the back of her head as she catches the football.

0:25- The ad transitions into a black screen with white writing for the remainder of the video.


White Paper- beachgirl04


Content: This source provides an example of a group of men overhydrating and then walking outside one day and then the next day did not drink any water before the walk but both days te men drank during the walk. It was seemed they tested to see if over hydration was even a thing and if it was how it would affect the men walking in the heat.

What it proved or did not prove: Over-hydration was beneficial to the men who were working in the heat.

Content: The mythology that surrounds hydration and water contamination from hikers and backpackers. Whether or not they believe hydration is important and if so how important. Some of the myths that come with hydration and dehydration are stated within the article.

What it proved or did not prove: There are plenty of myths that we have heard about drinking water for instance when your urine is dark it does not mean you are dehydrated also when you are thirsty it is too late and you already dehydrated is also a myth.

Content: Fetal water intoxication in a woman who died hours after she drank a ton of water. It is such thing to drink too much water and it can also affect your mindset as well as the parts of your body.

What it proved or did not prove: Water intoxication is something that can happen to individuals, it is not always recognizable but it can cause deaths. The death would be categorized as “hyponatraemia as a result of acute water intoxication.”

Content: Overheating is one thing but hydration is not always the answer to being overheated because it is shown in this article that people will drink too much water in that case. There is a story placed in this source that deals with mixing drugs and not staying hydrated in the slightest bit.

What it proved or did not prove: When someone is experiencing an ill ness or going through drug withdrawal and hospitalized, drinking TOO much water is a problem for many people. When individuals drink too much water, the water dilutes the blood which causes the sodium levels to drop.

Content: When we exercise we normally sweat out more than we drink water which causes a hypotonic-hypovelmia in our blood.

What it proved or did not prove: Drinking too much water (hyper-hydration) has no advantages and does not benefit you when exercising in the heat.


  • Grandjean AC, Reimers KJ, Bannick KE, Haven MC. The effect of caffeinated, non-caffeinated, caloric and non-caloric beverages on hydration. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(5):591–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Content: To examine the effects of different drinks that are not water on hydration in adults who are healthy.

What it proved or did not prove: There was no difference in the males that they studied whether they were drinking water or other liquids such as coffee, soda, alcohol.



Content: What athletes/ people who are apart of strenuous activity need to be drinking prior, during and after their activity and the benefits of that and how it effects their insides as well as their performance.

What it proved or did not prove: It is not good to drink water during exercise but drinking water before and after is extremely important as performance will be effected.



  • Valtin H. “Drink at least eight glasses of water a day.” Really? Is there scientific evidence for “8× 8”? Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2002;283(5):R993–1004.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Content: Drinking the 8, eight ounce glasses of water daily is apparently important and that only includes the water that you drink and nothing else.

What it proved or did not prove: the 8, eight ounce glasses are all fluids combined it does not need to just be water. Everyone’s body is different depending on how much water one needs in order to be hydrated.

Content: What it really means to be hydrated vs. dehydrated and the amount of fluid needed to be hydrated. There are so many different factors that play a role in dehydration.

What it proved or did not prove: How dehydration effects individuals as well as athletes.


Content: The dehydration assessment and evaluations of dehydration and one’s performance.

What it proved or did not prove: Individuals performance is actually effected whether they are hydrated or dehydrated.

Content: The issues of exercising in the heat and how hydration plays a role in participating in events in the heat. The athletic trainers experiences of working with athletes who participate out in the heat.

What it proved or did not prove: In order to work with individuals in the heat it is crucial to know how much water they need to be hydrated. Water is so important when going out in the heat because you sweat out what you put into your body.

Content: The weight loss and weight gain on athletes specifically wrestlers depending on how much water/other fluids they consumed.

What it proved or did not prove: Wrestlers lost weight because they were not drinking water to make weight but then gained the weight back and NEEDED it during the rehydration stage.

Content: The importance of drinking water for everyone whether it is in the heat or just a regular day and what men and women need in order to hydrate themselves. There are specific foods out there that can also help people become hydrated and gives them water.

What it proved or did not prove: Men need more water compared to women, different people need different amounts of water depending on how their body responds. All of the foods that give off water.


Content: Dehydration reduces athletic performance and puts athletes at risk for health problems and sometimes even death. There are hydration tests that are being done/ need to be done more in order for athletes to see how much water they are drinking to find out whether it isn’t enough, it is, or needs to drink more.

What it proved or did not prove: How important it is to monitor your hydration as an athlete.


Content: Explaining what over hydration is and how it affects people as well as how it can happen. This also compares overhydration to dehydration and how each affects individuals whether it is the same or different. Athletes are affected more than others, but it is still something that can happen to anyone.

What it proved or did not prove: Over-hydration is a thing and we need to open our eyes and realize it.



Content: Anyone is at risk for dehydration and being dehydrated has not all good but not all bad effects on one’s body fluids, organ masses and water flux through the skin. Drinking water can affect the insides of a body because water is what regulates body temperature. This is all in relation to animals.

What it proved or did not prove: Dehydration does not only cause someone to pass out but it greatly affects one’s inside organs. Water balance inside of our body is so important.


  • Popkin B. M., D’Anci, K. E., Rosenberg I. H. (2010.) “Water, Hydration and Health.”US National Library of Medicine National Insititutes of Health. 68(8), 439-458.







  • Thesis as of right now: Water is extremely important in order to stay hydrated but there are other fluids that can be involved when trying to stay healthy.
  • What I am still looking for: I am still looking for more academic sources that will help me prove that water is extremely important and why one needs to drink water compared to the other liquids. I think it would helpful to find studies of indivduals who drink water as well as other liquids such as alcoholic, coffee, and soda and that they are healthy and keep themselves hydrated. With that being said, I feel it is important to find articles of individuals who do not drink water and what happens to their inside organs as well as how it effects them physically.
  • Current State of my Research: I am feeling more confident right now compared to how I felt at first when this assignment was first talked about. I feel this way because of the constant help either on emails or replies on the blog from Professor Hodges. I still do not feel 100% confident using google scholar, I struggle with what to research to find good academic articles. My biggest problem/ fear is determining my thesis at this point, I feel as if I definitely need help redeveloping a thesis at this point in time. I also am feeling a bit nervous on the amount of time we have left in the semester and how I am going to revise each argument that I already wrote and put it together to make a strong 3000- word research essay.



PTSD Claims- beachgirl04

  1. “But she’s got a warrior’s skills: hyperawareness, hypervigilance, adrenaline-sharp quick-scanning for danger, for triggers. Super stimuli-sensitive.”

This is a categorical claim because the author is stating multiple different behaviors that belong to the category of “warrior skills.”

-These skills seem to be adopted when an individual has PTSD. Hyperawareness, hypervigilance, adrenaline-sharp quick scanning for danger, for triggers. Super stimuli-sensitive could be identified as behaviors for someone with PTSD.

-I looked all of the “skills” up and they are all involved with individuals who have PTSD.

  1. Brannan Vines has never been to war, but her husband, Caleb, was sent to Iraq twice, where he served in the infantry as a designated marksman. He’s one of 103,200, or 228,875, or 336,000 Americans who served in Iraq or Afghanistan and came back with PTSD, depending on whom you ask, and one of 115,000 to 456,000 with traumatic brain injury.”

This is a factual claim. It is not something that can be argued.

-The numbers in this is what forces it to be a factual claim because they can’t be making up the numbers as they are the amount of Americans who served in Iraq or Afghanistan and returned with PTSD.

-Also, the statement about Brannan Vines never going to war but her husband was could be identified as a definition claim as well as factual.

  1. “Caleb has been home since 2006, way more than enough time for Brannan to catch his symptoms.”

This is a causal claim.

-It is sort of hidden that this is causal claim because it does not come right out and state “the cause and effect” but since Caleb has been home since 2006 Brannan could have been effected and got his symptoms of PTSD. It would have been a consequence of living with an individual who has PTSD.

  1. “in soldiers, the incidence of PTSD goes up with the number of tours and amount of combat experienced.”  

This is a causal claim because it is cause and effect. Again, it does not say because of this this happens.

-But …”the incidence of PTSD goes up with the number of tours and amount of combat experienced.” The soldiers experience different feelings and pain because of the amount of combat they have experienced in the past.

  1. “The house is often quiet as a morgue”

-This is an analogy claim because it is comparing the house and how quiet it is to that of the quietness in a morgue.

-A morgue is a place that bodies are kept.

-this all ties into PTSD because the negative effects of PTSD that are apparent in Caleb’s home.

Stone Money—beachgirl04

After hearing about the concept of Stone Money for the first time ever in class, I was so confused and I really felt as if the whole idea of Stone Money was just made up. The island of Yap is what made me feel as if it was all just made up, that sounds like more of cartoon place to me rather than a real island. However, I quickly learned through our class lecture that this was in no way made up, it is very important in our history and today because we can compare the money system the island of Yap used to the money system we have in the United States. After reading Milton Friedman’s The Island of Stone Money,listening to NPR Broadcast and also reading about the Bitcoin I was confused in the beginning but by the end of the articles as well as the broadcast they all somewhat relate in one way or another. The world we live in today is full of money in so many ways even if you don’t believe it but there are so many questions regarding money that I’m not sure if they’ll ever be answered.

Listening to the NPR Broadcast intrigued me as well as made me befuddled. I knew that there was a lot of information going to be given through this broadcast but I was really interested when it stated “Money is fiction” because I wanted to know more, I wanted to know what they meant by this statement and how money could be fake. The whole process of banking online blows my mind because I never thought of it as deep as I did during this broadcast. My parents don’t get cash when they get paid, they say it’s pay day every other Friday morning but I never see them cashing their checks or sorting through their money, so I question how is it pay day where is the money? As stated in the broadcast “There aren’t even bills for most of the money that exists. Most of the money that exists is just the idea. It’s just the bank saying, yes there is this much money in your account.” It is the same thing with all of the payments that we must make as adults to live our life, our phone bill for example we are not taking money out of the bank and delivering it to the Verizon store it is just numbers going from our bank account to a company, it is just the idea that the money is there and our bank allows us to take it out because there is enough in there. We rely on money so much for everything in life, we need money to get through days, we need money to get places. But is money really what we think it is?

I was so curious about all of this and went on to read Milton Friedman’s essay to find out more. I was introduced to Yap in the NPR broadcast but it was brought up again in this article. Yap is a tiny island in Micronesia that was once colonized by Germany. The island of Yap does not have a banking system and after I learned that I was curious as to how it had any relation to money and this whole idea. Since there is no paper money and no records of finances there is no system to measure currency because the only money that is traded on the island is limestone and that is traded in the form of a wheel. This exchange was known as “fei” Which again is mind blowing because the size of the wheel is not specific but it must be an acceptable size in comparison to what is being purchased.

Also in Friedman’s article as we wonder about currency and money’s actual worth the story about the French and how gold was involved with money is crazy. How France wanted their gold from the United States is almost identical to the German’s fei. (Friedman) How does it make sense and why would France convert their money into gold? In 1932 that is what the French thought was a good idea and they were afraid to send gold across the ocean so they kept it in the bank having the bank separate it and placed it in their account. This was a big point in history and it is just another example of how many different ways people look at money. The people of France did not have actual dollar bills but they had gold and secured it in the bank and were satisfied. It is mind blowing how many different things can be considered “money”.

Still being confused about all of these different stories of currencies as well as what money is to different people in different parts of the world I went on to read about the bitcoin. In The Bubble bursts on e-currency Bitcoin, the bitcoin’s worth declined from $288 to $54! This just goes to show how you never know what is really going to happen with money, it is pieces of paper with amounts written on there that really don’t have much meaning, stones and even just numbers being sent from one account to another. This point was proven when in the article it stated “bitcoin remains a very uncertain speculative venture.” That also proves the most important point from the broadcast as to how “money is fiction.”

After trying to learn more about money, I am just as baffled if not even more than I was before I started this research. Money has so many different meanings and I do not know if there will ever be one meaning to the term money. I am shocked there is really no currency because the person accepting the money can change it whenever they please. I have a whole new insight on money and how the monetary systems work.



Friedman, Milton. “The Island of Stone Money.” Counterintuitive, Stanford University, Feb 1991.

Glass, Ira. “The Invention of Money.” This American Life, 19 Feb, 2018.

Renaut, Anne. “The bubble bursts on e-currency Bitcoin.” 13 Apr 2013. 30 Jan 2015.–finance.html