Citation Mechanics

Good Citations

The following are all good citation techniques. Refer to this list if you’re ever in doubt about how to cite and briefly quote in the same short sentence.

All these good example contain several essentials of good citation.

  • They identify the AUTHOR
  • They identify the TITLE of the article, essay, or story
    • They could contain the name of the publication also, but they don’t.
  • They contain a QUOTATION
    • They could contain a PARAPHRASE instead, without quotation marks.
  • They also have SAID language
    • SAID, BELIEVES, CLAIMS, ASSERTS, INSISTS, or countless other varieties of SAID.

Examples

  • Daniel Flath, in his essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” claims that “boys can’t learn from women.”
    • Author, in “Title,” said that “quote.”
  • Daniel Flath claims, in “Boylan’s Folly,” that “boys can’t learn from women.”
    • Author claims, in “Title,” that “quote.”
  • In Daniel Flath’s essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” Flath claims, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    • In Author’s essay, “Title,” Author claims, “Quote.”
    • In his essay, “Title,” Author claims, “Quote.”
  • In “Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath claims: “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    • In “Title,” Author claims: “Quote.”
  • Daniel Flath thinks “boys can’t learn from women.” He makes this and other outrageous claims in his essay, “Boylan’s Folly.”
    • Author says “quote.” He makes this claim in essay, “Title.”
  • That “boys can’t learn from women” is one of the outrageous claims Daniel Flath makes in “Boylan’s Folly.”
    • That “subject verbs” is a claim Author makes in “Title.”
  • “Boys can’t learn from women,” according to Daniel Flath in “Boylan’s Folly.”
    • “Quote,” according to Author in “Title.”

Flawed Mechanics

Fix the errors in these citations by typing corrected versions into the Reply field below. Number your sentences 1, 2, and 3.

  1. In his essay, Daniel Flath, the author of “Boylan’s Folly,” says that, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
  2. The author of “Boylan’s Folly”, Daniel Flath: “Boys can’t learn from women”.
  3. In the essay by Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly,” is said, “Boys can’t learn from women.”

One of Your Own

Write a new one of your own in the same Reply field. Number it 4.

Published by

davidbdale

Inventor of and sole practitioner of 299-word Very Short Novels. www.davidbdale.wordpress.com

71 thoughts on “Citation Mechanics”

  1. 1. In Daniel Flath’s essay, “Boylan’s Folly”, he makes the claim that “boys can’t learn from women”.
    2. Daniel Flath’s “Boylan’s Folly” tries to prove the theory that “boys cannot learn from women”.
    3. In the piece “Boylan’s Folly”, by Daniel Flath, the author tried to prove that “boys cannot learn from women”.

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  2. *Originally posted before learning about the format, this is the corrected reply*
    1. In his essay, Daniel Flath, the author of “Boylan’s Folly,” says that, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    2. The author of “Boylan’s Folly”, Daniel Flath: “Boys can’t learn from women”.
    3. In the essay by Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly,” is said, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    (1 edited)4. In Daniel Flath’s essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” he makes the claim that “boys can’t learn from women”.
    (2 edited)5. Daniel Flath’s “Boylan’s Folly” tries to prove the theory that “boys cannot learn from women”.
    (3 edited)6. In the piece “Boylan’s Folly,” by Daniel Flath, the author tried to prove that “boys cannot learn from women”.

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  3. 1. Daniel Flath, the author of “Boylan’s Folly,” says that, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    2. The author of “Boylan’s Folly” Daniel Flath claims that “boys can’t learn from women.”
    3. In the essay by Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly,” believes, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    4. Daniel Flath claims that “boys can’t learn from women,” in his essay “Boylan’s Folly.”

    Like

  4. 1.In his essay, the author of “Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath says that, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    2.The author of “Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath claims: “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    3.In the essay “Boylan’s Folly,” by Daniel Flath, it is said, “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    Like

  5. 1. In his essay,“Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath says that, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    2. The author of “Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath says that “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    3. In the essay by Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly,” Flath says, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    4. Daniel Flath says, “Boys can’t learn from women,” in his essay, “Boylan”s Folly.”

    Like

  6. Flawed Mechanics
    1. In his essay , “Boylan’s Folly,” the author claims, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    2. The author of “Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath, states “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    3. In the essay by Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly,” he states, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    4. The essay by Daniel Flath states, “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    Like

  7. 1. In his essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath argues that “boys can’t learn from women.”
    2. The author of “Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath, makes the claim that “boys can’t learn from women.”
    3. In the essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” by Daniel Flath, he insist that “boys can’t learn from women.”
    4. Daniel Flath argues in his essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” that “boys can’t learn from women.”

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      1. In the essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath insist that “boys can’t learn from women.”

        Does this work better?

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          1. Ok I understand. I think I focused too much on punctuation, especially inside and outside the ” “. My mistake. Will not happen again.

            Like

  8. 1. In his essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath says that, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    2. The author of “Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath claims: “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    3. In the essay by Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly,” claims, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    4. In Daniel Flath’s piece, “Boylan’s Folly,” he states, “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    Like

  9. 1. Daniel Flath, the author of “Boylan’s Folly,” says that “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    2. The author of “Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath claims that “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    3. In the essay “Boylan’s Folly” by Daniel Flath, he includes that “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    4. According to Daniel Flath in his article “Boylan’s Folly,” “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    Like

  10. 1. In his essay, Daniel Flath, the author of “Boylan’s Folly” says that “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    2. The author of “Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath, states “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    3. In the essay by Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly,” he says “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    4. Daniel Flath, the author of “Boylan’s Folly,” states that “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    Liked by 1 person

  11. 1. In his essay, Daniel Flath, the author of “Boylan’s Folly,” says that, “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    – In “Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath says that “boys can’t learn from women.”

    2. The author of “Boylan’s Folly”, Daniel Flath: “Boys can’t learn from women”.

    – In “Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath claims: “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    3. In the essay by Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly,” is said, “Boys can’t learn from
    women.”

    – In Daniel Flath’s essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” is said, “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    4. Daniel Flath claims that “boys can’t learn from women.” He makes this statement in “Boylan’s Folly.”

    Like

  12. 1. In his essay, “Boylan’s Folly”, Daniel Flath says that “boys can’t learn from women.”
    2. In “Boylan’s Folly”, Daniel Flath claims: “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    3. In the essay from Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly,” the following is said: “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    4. “Boylan’s Folly,” an essay written by Daniel Flath, claims “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    Like

  13. 1. In his essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath says that “boys can’t learn from women.”

    2. The author of “Boylan’s Folly”, Daniel Flath, says “Boys can’t learn from women”.

    3. In the essay by Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly,” he says, “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    4. Daniel Flath in the essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” says that “boys can’t learn from women.”

    Like

  14. 1.In his essay, Daniel Flath, the author of “Boylan’s Folly,” says that, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    -In “Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath says that, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    2. The author of “Boylan’s Folly”, Daniel Flath: “Boys can’t learn from women”.
    -Daniel Flath, the author of “Boylan’s Folly” proposes that:”boys can’t learn from women.”
    3. In the essay by Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly,” is said, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    -In Daniel Flath’s essays, “Boylan’s Folly,” it is said that, “boys can’t learn from women.”
    4. Daniel Flath states that, “boys can’t learn from women.” He claims this in the essay, “Boylan’s Folly.”

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        1. All four have errors, BG, that relate to the “lead in” from your Said Language to the quotation.
          Here are some more correct versions you can use as models.

          Beach Girl said that “this exercise was confusing.”
          Beach Girl said, “This exercise was confusing.”
          Beach Girl expressed an opinion: “This exercise was confusing.”

          Does that clarify the three types?

          Like

  15. 1. In his essay, Daniel Flath, the author of “Boylan’s Folly,” said that “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    2. The author of “Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath, argues that “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    3. In the essay by Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly,” is said, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    4. According to Daniel Flath’s essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    Like

  16. 1.In his essay, Daniel Flath, the author of “Boylan’s Folly,” says that, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    -In his essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath says that “boys can’t learn from women.”

    2. The author of “Boylan’s Folly”, Daniel Flath: “Boys can’t learn from women”.
    – The author of “Boylan’s Folly”, Daniel Flath argues: “Boys can’t learn from women”.

    3. In the essay by Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly,” is said, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    -In the essay by Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly,” he says, “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    4. Daniel Flath proclaims, “Boys can’t learn from women,” in his essay, “Boylan’s Folly.”

    Like

  17. 1.) In his essay, Daniel Flath, the author of “Boylan’s Folly,” says that, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    answer: In his essay,“Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath says that, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    2.) The author of “Boylan’s Folly”, Daniel Flath: “Boys can’t learn from women”.
    answer: The author of “Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath, states that “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    3.) In the essay by Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly,” is said, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    answer:In the essay by Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly,” he states, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    4.) Daniel Flath said that,”boys can’t learn from women,” in his essay, “Boylan’s Folly.”

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  18. 1. In the essay “Boylan’s Folly,” author Daniel Flaith says that, “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    2. Author Daniel Flath claims that “Boys can’t learn from women” in his essay “Boylan’s Folly.”

    3. The claim is made that “Boy’s can’t learn from women,” in the essay “Boylan’s Folly” by Daniel Flath.

    4. “Boys can’t learn from women,” Daniel Flath states in his essay “Boylan’s Folly.”

    Like

  19. 1. In Daniel Flath essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” says that “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    2. Daniel Flath, the author of “Boylan’s Folly,” states that “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    3. In the essay by Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly,” Flath says, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    4. In Daniel Flath essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” he claims that “Boy’s cant learn from women.”

    Like

  20. 1. In his essay, Daniel Flath, the author of “Boylan’s Folly,” says that, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    From the essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath says, “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    2.The author of “Boylan’s Folly”, Daniel Flath: “Boys can’t learn from women”.
    The author of “Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath stated, “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    3. In the essay by Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly,” is said, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    In the essay by Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly,” he say’s, “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    4.Said by Professor Hodge in “How to be a Patriotic America;” “Always put your commas and periods before the closing of a quotation mark.”

    Liked by 1 person

    1. 4. Said by Professor Hodge in “How to be a Patriotic America;” a lecture that held on the 27th of September, 2018; “Always put your commas and periods before the closing of a quotation mark. It’s the American way.”

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      1. Don’t want to fix my name?

        4. Said Professor Hodges in “How to be a Patriotic American,” a lecture held on the 27th of September, 2018: “Always put your commas and periods before the closing of a quotation mark. It’s the American way.”

        3 or 4 corrections here.
        This version is now correct.

        Like

    2. 1. Needs a “In the essay” to replace the “From the essay.”

      4. Professor Hodges.
      While periods and commas ALWAYS ALWAYS ALWAYS ALWAYS ALWAYS go inside Quotation Marks, semicolons don’t. Not always.

      Said Professor Hodges in “How to be a Patriotic American,” “Always put your commas and periods before the closing of a quotation mark.”

      Like

  21. 1. In his essay, Daniel Flath, the author of “Boylan’s Folly,” says that, “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    correct: In his essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath says that “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    2. The author of “Boylan’s Folly”, Daniel Flath: “Boys can’t learn from women”.

    correct: The author, Daniel Flath, of “Boylan’s Folly” insists that “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    3. In the essay by Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly,” is said, “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    correct: In the essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” written by Daniel Flath he says, “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    4. In Daniel Flath’s essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” he states that “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    Like

  22. 1. In his essay, Daniel Flath, the author of “Boylan’s Folly,” says that “boys can’t learn from women.”

    2. In “Boylan’s Folly,” author Daniel Flath states: “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    3. The essay by Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly,” insists, “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    4. In his essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” author Daniel Flath claims that “boys can’t learn from women.”

    Like

  23. 1. In his essay,“Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath says that, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    2. Daniel Flath, the author of “Boylan’s Folly,” claims: “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    3. In the essay “Boylan’s Folly,” author Daniel Flath insists, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    4. “Boys can’t learn from women,” claims Daniel Flath, the author of “Boylan’s Folly.”

    Like

      1. 1. In his essay,“Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath says that “Boys can’t learn from women.”
        2. Daniel Flath, the author of “Boylan’s Folly,” claims: “Boys can’t learn from women.”
        3. In the essay “Boylan’s Folly,” author Daniel Flath insists “Boys can’t learn from women.”
        4. “Boys can’t learn from women,” claims Daniel Flath, the author of “Boylan’s Folly.”

        Like

        1. I don’t want to torture you, Kevin. Your primary trouble seems to the in the transitions to the quoted material.

          I’ll make corrections in bold.

          1. In his essay,“Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath says that “boys can’t learn from women.”
          2. Daniel Flath, the author of “Boylan’s Folly,” claims, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
          3. In the essay “Boylan’s Folly,” author Daniel Flath insists, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
          4. No correction needed.

          As you know, comma-after-SAID-language is the most common transition.
          Examples:
          —Flath said, “Quote.”
          —Flath claims, “Quote.”
          —Flath insists, “Quote.”

          The EXCEPTIONS to that general pattern are when the quote is incorporated into the grammar of the sentence, as with that phrasing:
          —Flath said that “quote.”
          —Flath explained that “quote.”

          Another exception is when the grammar presents the lead-in material as a complete sentence. This one is rare.
          —Said Flath: “Quote.”
          —Flath has his own opinion: “Quote.”

          Liked by 1 person

  24. 1. Daniel Flath states in his essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” that “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    2. The author Daniel Flath of “Boylan’s Folly,” says “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    3. In the essay by Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly,” he claims “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    4. In Daniel Flath’s essay “Boylan’s Folly,” he makes the statement that “boys can’t learn from women.”

    Like

  25. 1. In his essay “Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath says that “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    2. The author of “Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath, boldly asserts that “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    3. In the essay “Boylan’s Folly” by Daniel Flath, it is stressed that “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    4. Daniel Flath makes a rather bold claim in his piece, “Boylan’s Folly,” making and maintaining the claim that “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    Like

  26. 1. In his essay, Daniel Flath, the author of “Boylan’s Folly,” says that “boys can’t learn from women.”
    2. In “Boylan’s Folly”, author Daniel Flath claims: “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    3. The essay by Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly”, says, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    4. Daniel Flath, author of “Boylan’s Folly”, claims that “boys can’t learn from women.”

    Like

  27. 1. In his essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” the author, Daniel Flath, said “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    2. Daniel Flath, the author of “Boylan’s Folly,” said “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    3. The essay, by Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly,” states, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    4. The essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” by Daniel Flath claims, “Boys can’t learn from women.”

    Like

  28. *New post*
    1. In his essay, Daniel Flath, the author of “Boylan’s Folly,” says that “boys can’t learn from women.”
    2. In “Boylan’s Folly,” author Daniel Flath claims: “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    3. The essay by Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly,” insists, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    4. In his essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” author Daniel Flath proposes that “boys can’t learn from women.”

    Liked by 1 person

  29. 1.In his essay, Daniel Flath, the author of “Boylan’s Folly,” says that “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    2.In “Boylan’s Folly,” author Daniel Flath claims: “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    3.In the essay “Boylan’s Folly,” by author Daniel Folly, claims that “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    4.“Boys can’t learn from women,” is stated by Daniel Flath in “Boylan’s Folly.”

    Like

  30. 1. In “Boylan’s Folly,” the author Daniel Flath, says that “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    2. Daniel Flath, the author of “Boylan’s Folly,” claims “boys can’t learn from women.”
    3. The essay written by Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly,” claims, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    4. In his essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” the author Daniel Flath claims that “boys can’t learn from women.”

    Like

  31. 1. In his essay, Daniel Flath, the author of “Boylan’s Folly,” says that “boys can’t learn from women.”
    2. In “Boylan’s Folly,” author Daniel Flath claims: “boys can’t learn from women.”
    3. The essay by Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly,” insists, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
    4. In the essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” by author Daniel Flath notions that “boys can’t learn from women.”

    Like

    1. 3. The essay by Daniel Flath, “Boylan’s Folly,” insists, “Boys can’t learn from women.”
      —Here I would resist saying that an essay insists. You can have Flath himself insists with the following edit:

      In his essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” Daniel Flath insists, “Boys can’t learn from women.”

      4. In the essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” by author Daniel Flath notions that “boys can’t learn from women.”
      —Here you set yourself up for trouble with “by author Daniel Flath” because in the essay by Flath, somebody has to do something, and you’ve already named Flath. If you leave out the “by,” the problem resolves itself:

      In the essay, “Boylan’s Folly,” author Daniel Flath notions that “boys can’t learn from women.”

      —One more thing. It’s very odd to say that someone notions something. Simpler “said language” would be an improvement. Flath mentions?

      Like

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